# 19.2 Coordination chemistry of transition metals  (Page 2/25)

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Many other ligands coordinate to the metal in more complex fashions. Bidentate ligands are those in which two atoms coordinate to the metal center. For example, ethylenediamine (en, H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 ) contains two nitrogen atoms, each of which has a lone pair and can serve as a Lewis base ( [link] ). Both of the atoms can coordinate to a single metal center. In the complex [Co(en) 3 ] 3+ , there are three bidentate en ligands, and the coordination number of the cobalt(III) ion is six. The most common coordination numbers are two, four, and six, but examples of all coordination numbers from 1 to 15 are known.

Any ligand that bonds to a central metal ion by more than one donor atom is a polydentate ligand    (or “many teeth”) because it can bite into the metal center with more than one bond. The term chelate    (pronounced “KEY-late”) from the Greek for “claw” is also used to describe this type of interaction. Many polydentate ligands are chelating ligands , and a complex consisting of one or more of these ligands and a central metal is a chelate. A chelating ligand is also known as a chelating agent. A chelating ligand holds the metal ion rather like a crab’s claw would hold a marble. [link] showed one example of a chelate. The heme complex in hemoglobin is another important example ( [link] ). It contains a polydentate ligand with four donor atoms that coordinate to iron.

Polydentate ligands are sometimes identified with prefixes that indicate the number of donor atoms in the ligand. As we have seen, ligands with one donor atom, such as NH 3 , Cl , and H 2 O, are monodentate ligands. Ligands with two donor groups are bidentate ligands. Ethylenediamine, H 2 NCH 2 CH 2 NH 2 , and the anion of the acid glycine, ${\text{NH}}_{2}{\text{CH}}_{2}{\text{CO}}_{2}{}^{\text{−}}$ ( [link] ) are examples of bidentate ligands. Tridentate ligands, tetradentate ligands, pentadentate ligands, and hexadentate ligands contain three, four, five, and six donor atoms, respectively. The ligand in heme ( [link] ) is a tetradentate ligand.

## The naming of complexes

The nomenclature of the complexes is patterned after a system suggested by Alfred Werner, a Swiss chemist and Nobel laureate, whose outstanding work more than 100 years ago laid the foundation for a clearer understanding of these compounds. The following five rules are used for naming complexes:

what are oxidation numbers
pls what is electrolysis
Electrolysis is the process by which ionic substances are decomposed (broken down) into simpler substances when an electric current is passed through them. ... Electricity is the flow of electrons or ions. For electrolysis to work, the compound must contain ions.
AZEEZ
thanks
Idowu
what is the basicity of an atom
basicity is the number of replaceable Hydrogen atoms in a Molecule. in H2SO4, the basicity is 2. in Hcl, the basicity is 1
Inemesit
how to solve oxidation number
mention some examples of ester
do you mean ether?
Megan
what do converging lines on a mass Spectra represent
would I do to help me know this topic ?
Bulus
oi
Amargo
what the physic?
who is albert heistein?
Bassidi
similarities between elements in the same group and period
what is the ratio of hydrogen to oxulygen in carbohydrates
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yvcrzezalakhhehuzhbshsunakakoaak
what is poh and ph
please what is the chemical configuration of sodium
Sharon
2.8.1
david
1s²2s²2p⁶3s¹
Haile
2, 6, 2, 1
Salman
1s2, 2s2, 2px2, 2py2, 2pz2, 3s1
Justice
1s2,2s2,2py2,2
Maryify
1s2,2s2,2p6,
Francis
1s2,2s2,2px2,2py2,2pz2,3s1
Nnyila
what is criteria purity
cathode is a negative ion why is it that u said is negative
cathode is a negative electrode while cation is a positive ion. cation move towards cathode plate.
king
CH3COOH +NaOH ,complete the equation
compare and contrast the electrical conductivity of HCl and CH3cooH
The must be in dissolved in water (aqueous). Electrical conductivity is measured in Siemens (s). HCl (aq) has higher conductivity, as it fully ionises (small portion of CH3COOH (aq) ionises) when dissolved in water. Thus, more free ions to carry charge.
Abdelkarim
HCl being an strong acid will fully ionize in water thus producing more mobile ions for electrical conduction than the carboxylic acid
Valentine
differiante between a weak and a strong acid
david
how can I tell when an acid is weak or Strong
Amarachi
an aqueous solution of copper sulphate was electrolysed between graphite electrodes. state what was observed at the cathode
write the equation for the reaction that took place at the anode
Bakanya
what is enthalpy of combustion
Bakanya
Enthalpy change of combustion: It is the enthalpy change when 1 mole of substance is combusted with excess oxygen under standard conditions. Elements are in their standard states. Conditions: pressure = 1 atm Temperature =25°C
Abdelkarim
Observation at Cathode: Cu metal deposit (pink/red solid).
Abdelkarim
Equation at Anode: (SO4)^2- + 4H^+ + 2e^- __> SO2 + 2H2O
Abdelkarim
Equation : CuSO4 -> Cu^2+ + SO4^2- equation at katode: 2Cu^2+ + 4e -> 2Cu equation at anode: 2H2O -> 4H+ + O2 +4e at the anode which reacts is water because SO4 ^ 2- cannot be electrolyzed in the anode
Niken