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For example the object-oriented programmer defines an abstract data type by encapsulating its implementation and its interface in a class.

One or more instances of the class can then be created or instantiated .

An instance of a class is known as an object .

Every object has state and behavior where the state is determined by the current values stored in the object's instance variables and the behavior is determined by the instance methods belonging to the object.

Inherited abstract data types are derived classes or subclasses of base classes or super classes. We extend super classes to create subclasses.

Within the program the code instantiates objects (creates instances of classes) and sends messages to the objects by calling the class's methods (or member functions ).

If a program is "object oriented", it uses encapsulation , inheritance , and polymorphism . It defines abstract data types, encapsulates those abstract data types into classes, instantiates objects fromthe classes, and sends messages to the objects.

The members of a class fall generally into one of the following categories:

  • Constructors
  • Properties
  • Methods
  • Events

The individual members of a class can be public , private , or protected .

To make things even more confusing, almost every item or action used in the OOP jargon has evolved to be described by several different terms. For example, we can cause an object to change its state by sending it a message, calling its methods, or calling its member functions. The term being used oftendepends on the author who wrote the specific book that you happen to be reading at the time.

Hopefully most of this terminology will become clear as we pursue these modules

Discussion and sample code

I usually try to provide some code in each module that you can compile and execute. Listing 2 contains the C# code for a simple program that will display the words "Hello C# World" on the system console screen when youcompile and run it. (The system console screen will probably appear as a black window when you run the program.)

Listing 2 . Hello World in C#.

//File Program.cs using System;namespace Hello01{ class Hello01{static void Main(string[] args){Console.WriteLine("Hello C# World"); //Press any key to dismiss console screen.Console.ReadKey(); }//end Main}//end class definition }//end namespace

You can learn a lot...

You may be surprised at how much you can learn about the structure and syntax of an object-oriented program in C# by taking this simple program apart andexamining the elements of the program. Note, however, that this program is strictly class based. It does not instantiate any objects .

A new class definition

The central block of code beginning with the word class defines a new class named Hello01 .

The Main method

You probably learned that every C++ program requires a function named main . Execution of the C++ program begins and ends in the main function.

The same is true in C#. Every C# program requires a method named Main (note the upper-case "M") . However, unlike in C++, the Main method in C# must be defined inside of a class definition.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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