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For example the object-oriented programmer defines an abstract data type by encapsulating its implementation and its interface in a class.

One or more instances of the class can then be created or instantiated .

An instance of a class is known as an object .

Every object has state and behavior where the state is determined by the current values stored in the object's instance variables and the behavior is determined by the instance methods belonging to the object.

Inherited abstract data types are derived classes or subclasses of base classes or super classes. We extend super classes to create subclasses.

Within the program the code instantiates objects (creates instances of classes) and sends messages to the objects by calling the class's methods (or member functions ).

If a program is "object oriented", it uses encapsulation , inheritance , and polymorphism . It defines abstract data types, encapsulates those abstract data types into classes, instantiates objects fromthe classes, and sends messages to the objects.

The members of a class fall generally into one of the following categories:

  • Constructors
  • Properties
  • Methods
  • Events

The individual members of a class can be public , private , or protected .

To make things even more confusing, almost every item or action used in the OOP jargon has evolved to be described by several different terms. For example, we can cause an object to change its state by sending it a message, calling its methods, or calling its member functions. The term being used oftendepends on the author who wrote the specific book that you happen to be reading at the time.

Hopefully most of this terminology will become clear as we pursue these modules

Discussion and sample code

I usually try to provide some code in each module that you can compile and execute. Listing 2 contains the C# code for a simple program that will display the words "Hello C# World" on the system console screen when youcompile and run it. (The system console screen will probably appear as a black window when you run the program.)

Listing 2 . Hello World in C#.

//File Program.cs using System;namespace Hello01{ class Hello01{static void Main(string[] args){Console.WriteLine("Hello C# World"); //Press any key to dismiss console screen.Console.ReadKey(); }//end Main}//end class definition }//end namespace

You can learn a lot...

You may be surprised at how much you can learn about the structure and syntax of an object-oriented program in C# by taking this simple program apart andexamining the elements of the program. Note, however, that this program is strictly class based. It does not instantiate any objects .

A new class definition

The central block of code beginning with the word class defines a new class named Hello01 .

The Main method

You probably learned that every C++ program requires a function named main . Execution of the C++ program begins and ends in the main function.

The same is true in C#. Every C# program requires a method named Main (note the upper-case "M") . However, unlike in C++, the Main method in C# must be defined inside of a class definition.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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