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A.d. 1101 to 1200

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The christian church

As a glance at the map on the next page will show, this century was the acme of Latin Christendom. The Church had become a feudal and hierarachial structure headed by an all-powerful pope and dedicated to self protection and infinite continuity. The recovery of the Church from some of its past indiscretions was furthered by the progress of the Cistercian order which had been founded in the previous century. As a result of the enthusiasm of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, there were 500 houses of that order by the year 1200. Many special ecclesiastical doctrines had been expounded and one of the most onerous of these was the condemnation of interest, because it proved a great obstacle to the development of banking. Durant (Ref. 49 ) lists three bases for this condemnation of interest, as follows:

  • Aristotle's condemnation as it was something "unnatural"
  • Christ's condemnation of interest
  • Reaction of the Fathers of the Church against commercialism and usury in Rome

In spite of this, many means of subterfuge were found to obtain a return on money through "rents" and other devices. Until the middle of this 12th century the main course of land credit was mortgage loans supplied by monasteries. The first Lateran Council of 1123 forbade the marriage of priests and the practice of simony.

The writings of Abilard, the cleric who sought to embrace the most mystic doctrines of the Church with the grasp of reason, may have signaled the end of the "Dark Ages". This was also the time of the 2nd and 3rd Crusades. The former (1146 to 1148) was instigated by St. Bernard and led by the German Emperor Conrad III and the French Louis VII, who had between them about 500,000 men. They took separate routes and the Crusade ended in catastrophe and collapsed, only to be followed by the 3rd Crusade from 1189 to 1192. This one was led by Philip Augusta of France and Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England and was composed chiefly of Norman troops, although Frederick I of Germany helped some. The city of Acre was conquered from the Turk Saladin, but after many battles this Crusade, like the previous one, ultimately met defeat. In the desert beyond Antioch, famine, plague and desertions reduced their numbers from 100,000 to 5,000. About 1130 a doctrinal heresy, Manichaeism, was imported to Europe from the Middle East and took root in southern France. (Ref. 68 , 49 , 8 , 222 ) (See map on page 603)

NOTE: Insert Map 43: European Civilization in the Middle Ages

The islamic church

After the death of the Seljuq Sultan Sin jar, eastern Islam disintegrated into independent principalities of petty dynasties and warring kings. The strongest Moslem province was now Egypt, headed by the great Saladin. Additional Notes

International jewry

At the third Lateran Council of Christ, the Christian Church adopted an increasingly hostile attitude toward Jewry and the wandering friars stirred the passions of the populace, so that the position of Jews in Europe deteriorated. They now began a gradual trek east from Germany into Poland, Lithuania and Russia and the general region of the eastern Danube, carrying with them their German dialect known as "Yiddish". This trek was to last for 4 centuries. France banished Jews in 1182. (Ref. 8 , 222 )

Islam, inheriting a lengthy Middle East tradition of long-distance trade, encouraged this throughout its existence and particularly in the 11th and 12th centuries. The endless sea voyages, the regular caravans indicated an organized capitalism predating any such activity in the Christian West. In Islam, the religion and the economy did not confront each other. (Ref. 292 )

Forward to A.D. 1201 to 1300

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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