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A.d. 1101 to 1200

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The christian church

As a glance at the map on the next page will show, this century was the acme of Latin Christendom. The Church had become a feudal and hierarachial structure headed by an all-powerful pope and dedicated to self protection and infinite continuity. The recovery of the Church from some of its past indiscretions was furthered by the progress of the Cistercian order which had been founded in the previous century. As a result of the enthusiasm of St. Bernard of Clairvaux, there were 500 houses of that order by the year 1200. Many special ecclesiastical doctrines had been expounded and one of the most onerous of these was the condemnation of interest, because it proved a great obstacle to the development of banking. Durant (Ref. 49 ) lists three bases for this condemnation of interest, as follows:

  • Aristotle's condemnation as it was something "unnatural"
  • Christ's condemnation of interest
  • Reaction of the Fathers of the Church against commercialism and usury in Rome

In spite of this, many means of subterfuge were found to obtain a return on money through "rents" and other devices. Until the middle of this 12th century the main course of land credit was mortgage loans supplied by monasteries. The first Lateran Council of 1123 forbade the marriage of priests and the practice of simony.

The writings of Abilard, the cleric who sought to embrace the most mystic doctrines of the Church with the grasp of reason, may have signaled the end of the "Dark Ages". This was also the time of the 2nd and 3rd Crusades. The former (1146 to 1148) was instigated by St. Bernard and led by the German Emperor Conrad III and the French Louis VII, who had between them about 500,000 men. They took separate routes and the Crusade ended in catastrophe and collapsed, only to be followed by the 3rd Crusade from 1189 to 1192. This one was led by Philip Augusta of France and Richard I, the Lion-Hearted of England and was composed chiefly of Norman troops, although Frederick I of Germany helped some. The city of Acre was conquered from the Turk Saladin, but after many battles this Crusade, like the previous one, ultimately met defeat. In the desert beyond Antioch, famine, plague and desertions reduced their numbers from 100,000 to 5,000. About 1130 a doctrinal heresy, Manichaeism, was imported to Europe from the Middle East and took root in southern France. (Ref. 68 , 49 , 8 , 222 ) (See map on page 603)

NOTE: Insert Map 43: European Civilization in the Middle Ages

The islamic church

After the death of the Seljuq Sultan Sin jar, eastern Islam disintegrated into independent principalities of petty dynasties and warring kings. The strongest Moslem province was now Egypt, headed by the great Saladin. Additional Notes

International jewry

At the third Lateran Council of Christ, the Christian Church adopted an increasingly hostile attitude toward Jewry and the wandering friars stirred the passions of the populace, so that the position of Jews in Europe deteriorated. They now began a gradual trek east from Germany into Poland, Lithuania and Russia and the general region of the eastern Danube, carrying with them their German dialect known as "Yiddish". This trek was to last for 4 centuries. France banished Jews in 1182. (Ref. 8 , 222 )

Islam, inheriting a lengthy Middle East tradition of long-distance trade, encouraged this throughout its existence and particularly in the 11th and 12th centuries. The endless sea voyages, the regular caravans indicated an organized capitalism predating any such activity in the Christian West. In Islam, the religion and the economy did not confront each other. (Ref. 292 )

Forward to A.D. 1201 to 1300

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
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Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
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Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
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what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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