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The internal degrees of freedom of a protein

The degrees of freedom of a system are a set of parameters that may be varied independently to define the state of the system. For example, the location of a point in the Cartesian 2D plane may be defined as a displacement along the x-axis and a displacement along the y-axis, given as a (x,y) pair. It may also be given as a rotation about the origin by θ degrees and a distance r from the origin, given as a (r,θ) pair. In either case, a point moving freely in a plane has exactly two degrees of freedom.

As mentioned before, the spatial arrangement of the atoms in a protein constitute its conformation. In the PDB coordinate file above, we can see that one obvious way to define a protein conformation is by giving x, y, and z coordinates for each atom, relative to some arbitrary origin. These are not independent degrees of freedom, however, because atoms within a molecule are not allowed to leave the vicinity of their neighboring atoms (if no chemical reaction takes place). Pairs of atoms bonded to each other, for example, are constrained to remain close, so moving one atom causes others connected to it to move in a dependent fashion. In the kinematics terminology, this means that the true, effective or independent number of degrees of freedom is much less than the input space parameters -an (x,y,z) tuple for each atom-. The remainder of this section defines a set of independent degrees of freedom that more readily model how proteins and other organic molecules can actually move.

Bonds and bond length

The atoms in proteins are connected to one another through covalent bonds. Each pair of bonded atoms has a preferred separation distance called the bond length . The bond length can vary slightly with a spring-like vibration, and is thus a degree of freedom, but realistic variations in bond length are so small that most simulations assume it is fixed for any pair of atoms. This is a very common assumption in the literature and reduces the effective degrees of freedom of a protein; the remainder of this module makes this assumption.

Although bond lengths will not be allowed to vary in this work, the presence of bonds is still important because it allows us to represent the connectivity of the protein as an undirected graph data structure, where the atoms are the nodes and the bonds between them are undirected edges. In some cases, it is helpful to artificially break any cycles in the graph, and choose an atom from the interior as an anchor atom. The graph can then be treated as a tree data structure, with the anchor atom as the root.

A protein as a graph data structure

A tree-like representation of protein connectivity, for a very small molecule. Cycles are broken by ignoring one bond in each.

Bond angles

Bond length is an independent degree of freedom given two connected atoms. A set of three atoms bonded in sequence defines another degree of freedom: the angle between the two adjacent bonds. This is, appropriately, referred to as the bond angle . The bond angle can be calculated as the angle between the two vectors corresponding to the bonds from the central atom to each of its neighbors. As a reminder, the angle between two vectors is the inverse cosine of the ratio of the dot product of the vectors to the product of their lengths. Like bond lengths, bond angles tend to be characteristic of the atom types involved, and, with few exceptions, vary little. Thus, like bond lengths, this module considers all bond angles as fixed (again, this is a common assumption).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Geometric methods in structural computational biology. OpenStax CNX. Jun 11, 2007 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10344/1.6
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