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What does it take to turn around low performing schools?

High-performing, high-poverty schools have strong leadership, a clear purpose, and clearly defined curriculum (Carter, 2000). In high-performing schools, teachers are well trained, acknowledge the difficult findings, spend most of their time teaching, and ensure that learning is happening (Carter, 2000; Schmoker, 2006). In this brief literature review, we examine the factors found in high performing schools that are also prevalent in the schools of this study: namely the impact of instruction, teacher training, leadership, use of assessment data, and instructional coaches for student achievement.

The impact of instruction on student achievement

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the role of the teacher as the key to school improvement. The 2001 NCLB legislation codifies the emphasis of having a highly qualified teacher in every classroom (as cited in Stronge, Ward, Tucker,&Hindman, 2008). According to Schmoker (2006), the single greatest determinant of learning is not socioeconomic factors or funding levels; it’s instruction. Sammons (1987) found that teaching had 6 to 10 times as much effect on learning as all other factors combined. The September, 1996 report of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (the Commission), What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future , followed by Pursuing Excellence , The report of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, all point to the finding that what teachers know and can do is crucial to what students learn (as cited in Darling-Hammond&Ball, 1997).

Therefore, to improve overall student achievement, the quality of instruction must be improved (Carter, 2000; Wallace 2003).

Teacher training and student achievement

To improve instruction, the quality of educators providing the instruction must be improved. In accordance with Carter (2000), Leithwood et. al.( 2004), and Schmoker (2006), teacher quality is the single most accurate indicator of students’ performance in school. To ensure that high-level instruction is occurring, schools need to have highly trained teachers. Yoon and colleagues (Yoon, Duncan, Lee, Scarlos,&Shapley, 2007) concluded that “teachers who receive sub­stantial professional development can boost their students’ achievement by about 21 percentile points” (p. iii). The right kinds of professional development for both teachers and school leaders can directly contribute to improved student performance (Holloway, 2006).

Accordingly, on-going targeted and focused professional development can significantly impact student achievement (Thurston, 2008).

The impact of leadership on student achievement

To ensure that quality instruction is happening throughout a school, leadership is critical. Perez, Uline, Johnson, James-Ward&Basom (2008) affirm that an ever growing body of evidence underscores a significant and positive relationship between effective school leadership, student learning, and achievement. Among related factors, leadership is second only to classroom instruction in its contribution to student learning (Leithwood, Seashore, Anderson&Wahlstrom, 2004). Moreover, the effects of leadership are greatest within the contexts where they are most needed, that is, “the greater the challenge, the greater the impact of leadership on learning (Leithwood et al., 2004). Hence, in underperforming and in high poverty schools, the need for effective leadership is magnified.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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