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What does it take to turn around low performing schools?

High-performing, high-poverty schools have strong leadership, a clear purpose, and clearly defined curriculum (Carter, 2000). In high-performing schools, teachers are well trained, acknowledge the difficult findings, spend most of their time teaching, and ensure that learning is happening (Carter, 2000; Schmoker, 2006). In this brief literature review, we examine the factors found in high performing schools that are also prevalent in the schools of this study: namely the impact of instruction, teacher training, leadership, use of assessment data, and instructional coaches for student achievement.

The impact of instruction on student achievement

In recent years, there has been renewed interest in the role of the teacher as the key to school improvement. The 2001 NCLB legislation codifies the emphasis of having a highly qualified teacher in every classroom (as cited in Stronge, Ward, Tucker,&Hindman, 2008). According to Schmoker (2006), the single greatest determinant of learning is not socioeconomic factors or funding levels; it’s instruction. Sammons (1987) found that teaching had 6 to 10 times as much effect on learning as all other factors combined. The September, 1996 report of the National Commission on Teaching and America’s Future (the Commission), What Matters Most: Teaching for America’s Future , followed by Pursuing Excellence , The report of the Third International Mathematics and Science Study, all point to the finding that what teachers know and can do is crucial to what students learn (as cited in Darling-Hammond&Ball, 1997).

Therefore, to improve overall student achievement, the quality of instruction must be improved (Carter, 2000; Wallace 2003).

Teacher training and student achievement

To improve instruction, the quality of educators providing the instruction must be improved. In accordance with Carter (2000), Leithwood et. al.( 2004), and Schmoker (2006), teacher quality is the single most accurate indicator of students’ performance in school. To ensure that high-level instruction is occurring, schools need to have highly trained teachers. Yoon and colleagues (Yoon, Duncan, Lee, Scarlos,&Shapley, 2007) concluded that “teachers who receive sub­stantial professional development can boost their students’ achievement by about 21 percentile points” (p. iii). The right kinds of professional development for both teachers and school leaders can directly contribute to improved student performance (Holloway, 2006).

Accordingly, on-going targeted and focused professional development can significantly impact student achievement (Thurston, 2008).

The impact of leadership on student achievement

To ensure that quality instruction is happening throughout a school, leadership is critical. Perez, Uline, Johnson, James-Ward&Basom (2008) affirm that an ever growing body of evidence underscores a significant and positive relationship between effective school leadership, student learning, and achievement. Among related factors, leadership is second only to classroom instruction in its contribution to student learning (Leithwood, Seashore, Anderson&Wahlstrom, 2004). Moreover, the effects of leadership are greatest within the contexts where they are most needed, that is, “the greater the challenge, the greater the impact of leadership on learning (Leithwood et al., 2004). Hence, in underperforming and in high poverty schools, the need for effective leadership is magnified.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Ncpea education leadership review, volume 10, number 2; august 2009. OpenStax CNX. Feb 22, 2010 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10710/1.2
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