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During this war, Lincoln wielded a greater power than any president up to the time of Franklin D. Roosevelt and in actuality he was a dictator, from the standpoint of constitutional law. Under one of his proclamations, over 13,000 persons were arrested and confined by military authority for offenses ranging from theft of government property to treason. Lincoln had many enemies in the north, ranging from the religious Osgoodites, who considered him the Beast of the Book of Revelations, to the defeatists "Copperheads", who only wanted to negotiate and finally the "barnburning" Knights of the Golden Circle in the middle west. Lincoln also enraged the Congress by arbitrary acts that went of ten beyond the Constitution or the authority which Congress felt that he had. Until his death he was never wildly popular.

Every school child knows of General Lee's surrender to General Ulysses Grant at Appomattox on April 12, 1865 and of Lincoln's assassination at Ford's theater on the night of April 1 4th at the hand of an actor, John Wilkes Booth, declared to be insane. Some southern armies and vessels surrendered at various times subsequently, the last on November 6th, when the C.S.S. Shenandoah surrendered to British authorities. (Ref. 151 , 39 )

Map taken from Ref. 97

The immediate effects of the civil war

In the north

Production was stimulated in the north and in Philadelphia alone some 180 factories were built within 3 years. Immigration from Europe increased with 800,000 people coming within 5 years. Labor saving devices invented at that time, or in general use, included the Howe sewing machine, the Gordon McKay shoe machine and the mechanical reaper. Pennsylvania oil production went up to 128,000,000 gallons in 3 years. Ref ining methods allowed kerosene glass lamps to light American and English farmhouses. The Homestead Act in 1862 stimulated westward migration and opened up new prairie farmlands. Great fortunes were started - Armour (meatpacking), Havemeyer (sugar), Remington (guns), Carnegie (iron and steel), Borden (milk) and Marshall Field (merchandise). 40,000,000 bushels of wheat and flour were exported in 1861. New states were added during and after the civil conflict. (See map on previous page). Some 15 new colleges were established, including Vassar, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, La Salle, Cornell and Swarthmore. At the end of the war, after the Confederate General Early had raided up to within sight of the capitol, there was inflation and paper dollars fell 2/3 in value-and the cost of living soared.

In the south

The war effort absorbed all. Transportation was wanting so that food and supply distribution was very bad, both during and af ter the war. Some areas starved, while others still had plenty. Texas was geographically removed from it all and uninvaded (except by Comanches) until 1865. Luxuries were imported from Mexico.

The reconstruction period. 1865 - 1877

There was an extremely rapid demobilization of Union forces and, amazingly, generalized acceptance of the war 's result by the south. Of several thousand southerners who refused to return to allegiance to the nation, a large part went to Texas, with a few to Europe, Brazil and Mexico. Reconstruction is still a controversial subject in American history, of ten distorted by emotion. Still it was a deplorable and tragic period. For up to three years no compulsion was put on the southern states to enfranchise the Negro, but during that time nothing was done to prepare him for citizenship either and much was done to humiliate him and keep him "down". In spite of the stereotype picture of the northern Republicans beating and robbing the south, in actuality millions of dollars of northern money poured into the south for food, education and various charities. Congress, too performed wonders in relief, but not in racial adjustments. President ANDREW JOHNSON appointed provisional civil governors in every former Confederate state where Lincoln had not already done so. The South replaced slavery with the "Black Codes", which everywhere kept the Negro a second class citizen.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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