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For example:

  • the lower the ionisation energy, the more reactive the element will be
  • how to predict the charge on cations and anions by using the periodic table

Atomic combinations

This section explores the forming of new substances with new physical and chemical properties when different combinations of atoms and molecules join together. This process is called chemical bonding, one of the most important processes in chemistry. The type of bond formed depends on the elements involved. Three types of chemical bonding: covalent, ionic and metallic bonding are discussed.

Covalent bonds form when atoms of non-metals share electrons. Why and how atoms join is described and explained by using Lewis dot diagrams and Couper notation to represent the formed molecules. Names and formulae of several covalent compounds are presented.

Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred. Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is more than1,7. The cations and anions that form attract each other with strong electrostatic forces. Details of how ionic compounds form is clarified with Lewis notation. When learners become familiar with the diagram of the crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound as NaCl they will be able to derive the properties of ionic compounds.

Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal. The unique properties of metals as a result of this arrangement are described in detail.

States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory (kmt)

Educators should not skip this section assuming that learners know the KMT because they have been exposed to it in previous grades. As an educator you should challenge the learners to move mentally between the three ways of thinking and talking about matter, as shown in the diagram above.

Use the learner’s book to revise the following concepts:

The kinetic theory of matter states that:

  • all matter is composed of particles which have a certain amount of energy, which allows them to move at different speeds depending on the temperature (energy);
  • there are spaces between the particles and also attractive forces between particles when they come close together.

States of Matter

  • Matter exists in one of three states: solid, liquid and gas.
  • a solid has a fixed shape and volume;
  • a liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in;
  • a gas completely fills the containers that it is in.
  • Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat.
  • Melting, boiling, freezing, condensation and sublimation are processes that take place when matter changes state.

In Grade 10 the learners should understand chemical bonds, intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory to assist them in explaining the macroscopic properties of matter, and why substances have different boiling points, densities and viscosities.

Chemical systems

The hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is made up of freshwater in rivers and lakes, the salt water of the oceans and estuaries, groundwater and water vapour. This section deals with how the hydrosphere interacts with other global systems. On exploring the hydrosphere, an investigation is proposed and guidance is given on how to choose the site, collect, and interpret the data. The very important function that water plays on our planet is highlighted, as well as threats to the hydrosphere. To cultivate an attitude of caring and responsibility towards the hydrosphere, learners are encouraged to engage in the proposed discussions on creative water conservation and investigations: how to build dams and to test the purity of water samples. As an educator you will appreciate the hints supplied for a project on water purification.

Questions & Answers

Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
Purification of water by natural plants and wetlands
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical science grade 10 teachers' guide - siyavula webbook. OpenStax CNX. Aug 10, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11342/1.1
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