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For example:

  • the lower the ionisation energy, the more reactive the element will be
  • how to predict the charge on cations and anions by using the periodic table

Atomic combinations

This section explores the forming of new substances with new physical and chemical properties when different combinations of atoms and molecules join together. This process is called chemical bonding, one of the most important processes in chemistry. The type of bond formed depends on the elements involved. Three types of chemical bonding: covalent, ionic and metallic bonding are discussed.

Covalent bonds form when atoms of non-metals share electrons. Why and how atoms join is described and explained by using Lewis dot diagrams and Couper notation to represent the formed molecules. Names and formulae of several covalent compounds are presented.

Ionic bonds form when electrons are transferred. Ionic bonding takes place when the difference in electronegativity between the two atoms is more than1,7. The cations and anions that form attract each other with strong electrostatic forces. Details of how ionic compounds form is clarified with Lewis notation. When learners become familiar with the diagram of the crystal lattice arrangement in an ionic compound as NaCl they will be able to derive the properties of ionic compounds.

Metallic bonding is the electrostatic attraction between the positively charged atomic nuclei of metal atoms and the delocalised electrons in the metal. The unique properties of metals as a result of this arrangement are described in detail.

States of matter and the kinetic molecular theory (kmt)

Educators should not skip this section assuming that learners know the KMT because they have been exposed to it in previous grades. As an educator you should challenge the learners to move mentally between the three ways of thinking and talking about matter, as shown in the diagram above.

Use the learner’s book to revise the following concepts:

The kinetic theory of matter states that:

  • all matter is composed of particles which have a certain amount of energy, which allows them to move at different speeds depending on the temperature (energy);
  • there are spaces between the particles and also attractive forces between particles when they come close together.

States of Matter

  • Matter exists in one of three states: solid, liquid and gas.
  • a solid has a fixed shape and volume;
  • a liquid takes on the shape of the container that it is in;
  • a gas completely fills the containers that it is in.
  • Matter can change between these states by either adding heat or removing heat.
  • Melting, boiling, freezing, condensation and sublimation are processes that take place when matter changes state.

In Grade 10 the learners should understand chemical bonds, intermolecular forces and the kinetic theory to assist them in explaining the macroscopic properties of matter, and why substances have different boiling points, densities and viscosities.

Chemical systems

The hydrosphere

The hydrosphere is made up of freshwater in rivers and lakes, the salt water of the oceans and estuaries, groundwater and water vapour. This section deals with how the hydrosphere interacts with other global systems. On exploring the hydrosphere, an investigation is proposed and guidance is given on how to choose the site, collect, and interpret the data. The very important function that water plays on our planet is highlighted, as well as threats to the hydrosphere. To cultivate an attitude of caring and responsibility towards the hydrosphere, learners are encouraged to engage in the proposed discussions on creative water conservation and investigations: how to build dams and to test the purity of water samples. As an educator you will appreciate the hints supplied for a project on water purification.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Purification of water by natural plants and wetlands
Gift Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Physical science grade 10 teachers' guide - siyavula webbook. OpenStax CNX. Aug 10, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11342/1.1
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