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The preference indicated by this study is consistent with the Fisherian model ( [link] ) of female preference, first proposed by Fisher in 1930 (Kodric-Brown 1984). Because the vocal displays of the males are sexually selected and heritable, the Fisherian model predicts that females who mate with the dominant males may actually increase the fitness of their offspring by other indirect means such as “attractive” genes that caused the female to mate with the male on lek. Because the display behavior of the males is determined at least in part by the males’ natural abilities and instincts, female preference for males that show this behavior serves to increase the fitness benefits and mating success of the offspring (Durães et al. 2009).

The hotspot hypothesis

Another theory on lekking behavior is known as the “hotspot” hypothesis. This theory proposes that leks form as an aggregation of males each settling in an area where females are most likely to pass by (Théry 1991). Thus, male clusters are expected to occur in regions of high female density or in regions determined likely to encounter females based on studies of female dispersion patterns (Westcott 1994). While perhaps less supported than the preference model, the hotspot model is appealing to many scientists as a result of its congruity with generally-accepted knowledge of the fundamentals of mating systems. Leks provide an opportunity to study mating fundamentals, because in leks, males contribute only sperm and are therefore able to act solely out of concern for maximum reproductive success without the confound of providing parental care to offspring. Logically, then, the hotspot hypothesis of leks is a natural phenomenon of male behavior as a function of female behavior, which is to be expected in a mating system where males are focused solely on genetic distribution (Westcott 1994).



a white-crowned manakin
White-crowned manakin

The manakins (Pipridae) are a group of approximately 40 different Neotropical bird species characterized partially by their lekking behavior (Prum 1990, Théry 1991). Sympatric manakin species demonstrate various distributions of clustering, but lekking display to some degree is present in all manakin species (Théry 1991, Prum 1990). Manakins are noted and selected for their bright plumage displays, and thus sexual selection has led to strong dimorphism in male characteristics (Prum 1990). Male birds are selected for bold, bright patterns of black and white with very bright colors while females are more camouflaged in greens and yellow. Manakins are traditionally frugivorous , feeding on fruits similar to other tropical birds. Manakin displays tend to vary among species. Some display on tree branches and limbs while others perform their mating dances on fallen logs or in cleared patches. Behaviors also vary in complexity, which many species demonstrating simple callings and flights while others show orchestrated wing noises, postures, flights, and patterns (Prum 1990).

a golden-headed manakin
Golden-headed manakin

A study by Marc Théry in French Guiana followed six species of manakins, white-crowned ( Pipra pipra pipra ), golden-headed ( P. erythrocephala erythrocephala ), white-fronted ( P. serena serena ), white-bearded ( Manacus manacus manacus , white-throated ( Corapipo gutturalis ), and thrush-like ( Schiffornis turdinus wallacii ) for 3 years, banding them and studying mating and breeding behaviors as well as movement patterns (Théry 1991). The researchers found that the female manakins stayed within their home ranges when courting and visiting males. Additionally, the location of the leks was always near regions of climaxing feeding activity of females. When studying the ranges of different females, researchers noted that females visiting males on the same lek showed overlapping home ranges and the male manakins were found to settle in regions of high resource density, where female traffic was highest. These observations show strong support for the hotspot theory, with males aggregating in “hotspots,” or regions that attract high densities of females (Théry 1991).

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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