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The preference indicated by this study is consistent with the Fisherian model ( [link] ) of female preference, first proposed by Fisher in 1930 (Kodric-Brown 1984). Because the vocal displays of the males are sexually selected and heritable, the Fisherian model predicts that females who mate with the dominant males may actually increase the fitness of their offspring by other indirect means such as “attractive” genes that caused the female to mate with the male on lek. Because the display behavior of the males is determined at least in part by the males’ natural abilities and instincts, female preference for males that show this behavior serves to increase the fitness benefits and mating success of the offspring (Durães et al. 2009).

The hotspot hypothesis

Another theory on lekking behavior is known as the “hotspot” hypothesis. This theory proposes that leks form as an aggregation of males each settling in an area where females are most likely to pass by (Théry 1991). Thus, male clusters are expected to occur in regions of high female density or in regions determined likely to encounter females based on studies of female dispersion patterns (Westcott 1994). While perhaps less supported than the preference model, the hotspot model is appealing to many scientists as a result of its congruity with generally-accepted knowledge of the fundamentals of mating systems. Leks provide an opportunity to study mating fundamentals, because in leks, males contribute only sperm and are therefore able to act solely out of concern for maximum reproductive success without the confound of providing parental care to offspring. Logically, then, the hotspot hypothesis of leks is a natural phenomenon of male behavior as a function of female behavior, which is to be expected in a mating system where males are focused solely on genetic distribution (Westcott 1994).

Support

Manakins

a white-crowned manakin
White-crowned manakin

The manakins (Pipridae) are a group of approximately 40 different Neotropical bird species characterized partially by their lekking behavior (Prum 1990, Théry 1991). Sympatric manakin species demonstrate various distributions of clustering, but lekking display to some degree is present in all manakin species (Théry 1991, Prum 1990). Manakins are noted and selected for their bright plumage displays, and thus sexual selection has led to strong dimorphism in male characteristics (Prum 1990). Male birds are selected for bold, bright patterns of black and white with very bright colors while females are more camouflaged in greens and yellow. Manakins are traditionally frugivorous , feeding on fruits similar to other tropical birds. Manakin displays tend to vary among species. Some display on tree branches and limbs while others perform their mating dances on fallen logs or in cleared patches. Behaviors also vary in complexity, which many species demonstrating simple callings and flights while others show orchestrated wing noises, postures, flights, and patterns (Prum 1990).

a golden-headed manakin
Golden-headed manakin

A study by Marc Théry in French Guiana followed six species of manakins, white-crowned ( Pipra pipra pipra ), golden-headed ( P. erythrocephala erythrocephala ), white-fronted ( P. serena serena ), white-bearded ( Manacus manacus manacus , white-throated ( Corapipo gutturalis ), and thrush-like ( Schiffornis turdinus wallacii ) for 3 years, banding them and studying mating and breeding behaviors as well as movement patterns (Théry 1991). The researchers found that the female manakins stayed within their home ranges when courting and visiting males. Additionally, the location of the leks was always near regions of climaxing feeding activity of females. When studying the ranges of different females, researchers noted that females visiting males on the same lek showed overlapping home ranges and the male manakins were found to settle in regions of high resource density, where female traffic was highest. These observations show strong support for the hotspot theory, with males aggregating in “hotspots,” or regions that attract high densities of females (Théry 1991).

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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