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Natural sciences

Grade 9

The earth, galaxies and space programmes

Module 12

The formation of the universe

At the start of the universe matter did not exist.

According to scientists there was originally only a little ball smaller than an atom of this explosion that became as large as a soccer ball when it started cooling down from infinitely hot to ten billion °C. We don’t know what was in the universe before that.

The explanation that the exceedingly hot spaces and a mixture of particles and forces exploded and started expanding, and are still expanding! The theory is that the galaxies are continuing to move apart. Scientists can still detect the microwaves of the afterglow of the explosion.

This is known as the BIG BANG theory. Only one of the four forces in the universe was in operation, namely the super force - it lasted for only a trillionth of a trillionth of a second!

Cosmologists (scientists that study the universe (cosmos)) have a difficult task, as they have nothing against which to test or compare their ideas. That’s why the “Big Bang” theory came into being. It is a model that they created to explain all phenomena and aspects of this explosion. According to scientists the universe is still expanding.

A scientist by the name of Edward Hubble recorded this movement of galaxies for the first time in the 1920s. He determined that the speed of a galaxy is directly proportional to its distance from us. This is known as Hubble’s Law.

Activity: MAKE A MODEL

  • Take an uninflated balloon and paste stars all over its surface. Each star represents a galaxy. Paste a round sticker to represent the Milky Way.
  • Now inflate the balloon – note that the galaxies and the Milky Way move further and further apart.

A series of processes in which extreme heat and pressure played a role, led to the formation of matter and elements.

  • Hydrogen was formed in the first moments of the formation of the universe after a large number of quarks (Matter: Gr. 8) had been compressed.
  • The universe with all its stars and clouds of matter is comprised almost solely of helium and hydrogen, the smallest and lightest of all elements (as you learnt in Gr. 8).
  • These elements were formed when the quarks blended with the “matter mixture”, resulting in very high pressure and high temperatures.
  • Quarks are so small that 10 billion billion of them next to one another would only stretch one metre.
  • Larger atoms such as beryllium were formed when large numbers of helium atoms were joined together in nuclear reactions within stars.
  • Iron – an important element in the earth’s crust – was formed deep inside stars when very high temperatures and pressure compressed carbon atoms.All matter in the universe is held together by FOUR FORCES:
  • Gravity
  • Electromagnetic forces
  • Strong nuclear forces
  • Weak nuclear forces

Antimatter also exists – it is like a mirror image of matter and should the two groups come together, they would cancel each other out!!!!! Fortunately there is very little antimatter in space.

When Time Began

  • In the beginning, when there was no universe yet, there was also no time. The theory is that it all started as follows:

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11069/1.1
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