# 2.1 Dsp00104-sampled time series  (Page 7/10)

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## The locations of the spectral peaks

The spectral peaks in Figure 7 appear where you would expect to see them. For example, the location of the peak in the first plot corresponds to a frequencyof 0.25 cycles per second within a total frequency range extending from zero to two cycles per second. This matches the information given in the above table forthe first sinusoid.

The location of the spectral peak in the fifth plot corresponds to a frequency of 1.75 cycles per second within a total frequency range extendingfrom zero to two cycles per second. This matches the information given in the above table for the fifth sinusoid.

The location of the peak in each of the three plots between the first and the last are correct for the frequency of the sinusoid involved.

## Introduce a sampling problem

Now I will introduce a sampling problem by keeping the frequencies of the sinusoids the same and reducing the sampling frequency from four samples persecond to two samples per second.

The result of this change is shown in Figure 8 .

Figure 8. Spectral analyses of five sinusoids with sampling problem.

As before, each of the plots in Figure 8 shows the frequency spectrum of an individual sinusoid. The spectrum is plotted from zero frequency on the left tothe folding frequency on the right.

## Sampling frequency was two samples per second

In this case, the sampling frequency was two samples per second, giving a folding frequency of one cycle per second. Therefore, the horizontal scale oneach plot represents the frequencies from zero on the left to one cycle per second on the right.

## The heights of the spectral peaks

Once again, the height of each spectral peak is consistent with the amplitude of the sinusoid.

## The locations of the spectral peaks

As before, the spectral peaks in the first three plots appear where you would expect to see them. The peak in the first plot is about twenty-five percent ofthe way across the total spectrum, corresponding to 0.25 cycles per second.

The spectral peak in the second plot is at the center, corresponding to 0.5 cycles per second. The third peak is in the correct location for 0.75 cycles persecond.

## A problem with the location of two spectral peaks

However, a problem exists with the spectral peaks in the last two plots.

(I marked the two problem peaks with a red oval to make it obvious which ones I am talking about. You may find it helpful to compare Figure 8 side-by-side with Figure 7 .)

The spectral peak in the fourth plot also appears about midway between zero and one cycle per second. This indicates that the corresponding sinusoid had afrequency of 0.5 cycles per second.

However, the frequency of the sinusoid for the fourth plot was 1.50 cycles per second, not 0.5 cycles per second as indicated. Thus, that spectral peakshould have been off the scale on the right-hand side of the plot.

## The folding frequency

Recall, however, that the right edge of the plot is the folding frequency. Therefore, any spectral components that should appear to the right of thefolding frequency fold around and appear to the left of the folding frequency. Therefore, the spectral peak in the fourth plot, which should appear at 0.50cycles per second above the folding frequency, appears instead at 0.50 cycles per second below the folding frequency.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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