# Java1478-fun with java, how and why spectral analysis works  (Page 5/9)

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## Example of time domain and frequency domain

If you were to draw a graph of the voltage impinging on the speaker coils on your stereo system over time, that would be a time series, which is a member ofthe time domain.

If you were to observe the lights dancing up and down on the front of your equalizer while the music is playing, you would be observing the sameinformation presented in the frequency domain. Typically the lights on the left represent low frequencies or bass while the lights on the right side representhigh frequencies or treble. Often there is a slider associated with each vertical group of lights that allows you to apply filters to emphasize certainparts of the frequency spectrum and to de-emphasize other parts of the frequency spectrum.

## Forward and inverse transforms

There are two very similar forms of the Fourier transform. The forward transform is typically used to transform information from the time domain intothe frequency domain. The inverse transform is typically used to transform information from the frequency domain back into the time domain.

## Sampled time series

The theoretical Fourier transform is defined using integral calculus as applied to continuous functions. As a practical matter, in the digital world, wealmost never deal with continuous functions. Rather, we deal with functions that have been reduced to a series of discrete numbers (or samples), which are theresult of some discrete measurement system.

(As mentioned earlier, recording the temperature in your office once each minute for twenty-four hours would produce such a discrete series ofnumbers.)

## Integration and summation

In many cases, the integration operation encountered in integral calculus can be approximated in the digital world by a summation operation using discrete data. That is the case with the Fourier transform. Thus, the (simple) summation form of the Fourier transform that is applied to a discrete time series is known as the Discrete Fourier Transform , or DFT .

## The FFT algorithms

The DFT is a computationally intense operation. Given certain restrictions involving the number of values in the time series and the number of frequenciesat which the spectral analysis will be performed, there is are special algorithm that can result in computational economy in performing the transform.The algorithms that are used to realize that economy are commonly referred to as Fast Fourier Transform or FFT algorithms.

## DFT versus FFT

The DFT is more general than the FFT, but the FFT is much faster than the DFT. It is important to understand that these are simply two differentalgorithms for doing the same thing. Either can be used to produce the same results (but as mentioned earlier, the FFT is somewhat more restricted as to the number of time-domain and frequency-domain samples) .

Because the DFT algorithm is somewhat easier to understand than the FFT algorithm, and also more general, I will concentrate on the DFT algorithm to explain how and why theFourier transform accomplishes what it accomplishes.

what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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