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Until a real alternative is found to the patriarchal organization of social reproduction and in absence of a supply of daily services directed to the set of citizens in the case of Spain, we must be asked, who takes care of the tasks relating to social reproduction – taking care of elders, children, etc. – while women have a professional life, work 8 hours daily or more outside the home, and lack time?; how many “other” women must work under the most precarious conditions to be able to maintain our social and economic system and to face denominated care crisis ?

But the “internationalization of reproduction” is not the only factor that helps to understand the feminization of the flows. We must also resort to another explanatory factor: the normalization of the phenomenon of the migration in Spain. In Spain, a society that has been characterized to carry out migratory flows towards central and western Europe during the postwar period, is not until the mid-80’s that international immigration began to appear as a “social fact.” From this date, the progressive arrival of workers from Africa, Latin America, Asia, and East Europe have been assisted, due to, among other factors, the existence of an effect from the logic of the reconstruction of the work market that takes place in Spain during those years (Cachón 1997). As it has happened in all the societies that have been receiving migratory flows along of their history, as the new residents are settling more or less permanently, the arrival of women through the processes of familiar regrouping has increased. This has been the pattern mainly followed by the female migrations coming from Africa, Asia, or countries like Pakistan.

The female immigrant in spain: some statistical data

The most suitable source, in Spain, for the quantification of the number of foreigners is the Municipal Register of Inhabitants elaborated by the INE with annual regularity since 1998. The foreign population in Spain has reached, according to the data of the Municipal Register to January 1, 2004, 3,034,326 people (7.02% of the total registered population). On the basis the data of the Statistical Yearbook of Extranjería 2003, gathered by the Ministry of Interior, is a total of 1,647,011 foreign residents in Spain with card or permission of residence since December 31, 2003, 65.3% of the total pertaining to the General Regime. This number conveys an increase of 24.4% with respect to December of the previous year, and a total of 39 foreigners with card or authorization of residence for each 1000 inhabitants. Of the comparison of data of the Register with those of the Ministry of Interior, the foreigners of the Register surpass the legal residents in more than 1,300,000 people, which allow approximating the important volume the irregular population situation has in Spain.

Although the percentage of women for the set of Spain (almost 45% of the total foreigners with card or authorization of residence) puts in evidence the feminization of the flows, the proportion of women varies according to the origin continent; so that while the countries pertaining to the European Economic Space present a practically egalitarian distribution of sexes (47.7% of women) – according to data of the Statistical Yearbook of Extranjería-, Africa and Asia has a predominate profile of masculine immigration (32.5% and 40.5% of women, respectively); on the contrary, in the Latin American countries, with a 54.5% of women, a noticeable feminization of the migratory flows occurs.

Questions & Answers

I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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