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Until a real alternative is found to the patriarchal organization of social reproduction and in absence of a supply of daily services directed to the set of citizens in the case of Spain, we must be asked, who takes care of the tasks relating to social reproduction – taking care of elders, children, etc. – while women have a professional life, work 8 hours daily or more outside the home, and lack time?; how many “other” women must work under the most precarious conditions to be able to maintain our social and economic system and to face denominated care crisis ?

But the “internationalization of reproduction” is not the only factor that helps to understand the feminization of the flows. We must also resort to another explanatory factor: the normalization of the phenomenon of the migration in Spain. In Spain, a society that has been characterized to carry out migratory flows towards central and western Europe during the postwar period, is not until the mid-80’s that international immigration began to appear as a “social fact.” From this date, the progressive arrival of workers from Africa, Latin America, Asia, and East Europe have been assisted, due to, among other factors, the existence of an effect from the logic of the reconstruction of the work market that takes place in Spain during those years (Cachón 1997). As it has happened in all the societies that have been receiving migratory flows along of their history, as the new residents are settling more or less permanently, the arrival of women through the processes of familiar regrouping has increased. This has been the pattern mainly followed by the female migrations coming from Africa, Asia, or countries like Pakistan.

The female immigrant in spain: some statistical data

The most suitable source, in Spain, for the quantification of the number of foreigners is the Municipal Register of Inhabitants elaborated by the INE with annual regularity since 1998. The foreign population in Spain has reached, according to the data of the Municipal Register to January 1, 2004, 3,034,326 people (7.02% of the total registered population). On the basis the data of the Statistical Yearbook of Extranjería 2003, gathered by the Ministry of Interior, is a total of 1,647,011 foreign residents in Spain with card or permission of residence since December 31, 2003, 65.3% of the total pertaining to the General Regime. This number conveys an increase of 24.4% with respect to December of the previous year, and a total of 39 foreigners with card or authorization of residence for each 1000 inhabitants. Of the comparison of data of the Register with those of the Ministry of Interior, the foreigners of the Register surpass the legal residents in more than 1,300,000 people, which allow approximating the important volume the irregular population situation has in Spain.

Although the percentage of women for the set of Spain (almost 45% of the total foreigners with card or authorization of residence) puts in evidence the feminization of the flows, the proportion of women varies according to the origin continent; so that while the countries pertaining to the European Economic Space present a practically egalitarian distribution of sexes (47.7% of women) – according to data of the Statistical Yearbook of Extranjería-, Africa and Asia has a predominate profile of masculine immigration (32.5% and 40.5% of women, respectively); on the contrary, in the Latin American countries, with a 54.5% of women, a noticeable feminization of the migratory flows occurs.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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