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Trouble between civil and church authorities was not long in appearing. By 1680 the population in the area had increased to 2,800 and there were towns at Pecos, Taos, Santa Cruz, San Marcos, etc. but all were evacuated when an Indian revolt of Zuni, Hopi, Tano and Keres Indians, under Pope', revolted. Some 2,000 refugees reached El Paso. Pope' made himself governor, but his bad reign and a long drought led to disarray, allowing recapture of this area of present day New Mexico and western Texas by Diego de Vargas rather easily in 1692. (Ref. 198 , 83 )

Alonso de Leon had established a mission at San Francisco de los Tejas, near the Neches River in 1690, but it was abandoned in 1693. (Ref. 198 ) Father Eusebio Kino visited the Pima Indians on the Gila River in southern Arizona in 1697 and, finding them friendly, he established a mission near present day Tucson, in 1700. The Pima were experts with bow and arrow and had war clubs and rawhide shields. (Ref. 38 )

The far west

The Great Plains and the far west were certainly moderately populated with many and varied Indian tribes in this century, but in the absence of contact with whites little accurate information is available. The reader is referred to the l8th and l9th centuries.

Mexico, central america, and the caribbean

Already Mexican Society was divided into several classes based chiefly on race and color. First there were the Indians, living primarily in their villages under the rule of the caciques, with their numbers greatly dwindled. The second class was the Creoles, a white population born in Mexico and descendants of the conquistadores. Next were the Mestizos, who were half -breeds, half Indian and half white and finally the Gachupines, natives of Spain sent over for administration. Instead of being incorporated into Spanish civilization the Indians regarded all white men as their enemies and the Creole landowners encroached on the Indian villages' land. Government attempts to protect the Indians were foiled by corrupt officials and Indian ignorance of the law. (Ref. 167 ) The few remaining primitive Chichimec Indians of the north Mexican desert were still being hunted and run to earth "like wild animals". (Ref. 260 )

The decay of the Spanish Empire in Europe did not enable the Creoles to usurp powers of self-government, however, because they were themselves victims of the Gachupin bureaucracy. This bureaucracy tapped the wealth produced by the labor of the native population. On the surface all was peace, passivity and decay, but explosive forces were slowly developing. Communications remained primitive; there were no roads; and Mexican industry was suppressed in part because of jealousy of the Spanish merchants. Mexico was unable to develop any native commercial class.

The drop in the Indian population of Mexico in just 5 or 6 generations was almost unbelievable although the exact figures are still being debated. Tannahill (Ref. 211 ) says that by 1605 central Mexico had only 1,075,000 people, down from 25,000,000 at the time of Cortez and that the decrease was due to war, economic upheaval, exploitation and new diseases, representing one of the most comprehensive human catastrophes of the world. The deliberate encouragement of alcohol in the forms of pulque and mezcal among the Indians must also have been a deteriorating factor. State revenue from pulque in New Spain was equal to one-half the revenue from the silver mines. (Ref. 260 ) William McNeill (Ref. 140 ) writes that the entire population of Mexico was, at 1,600,000 in 1620, a 90% drop with drastic psychological and cultural consequences. Faith in established institutions and belief s cannot withstand such disaster and skills and knowledge disappear. Thus, it was easy for the Spaniards to transfer their language and culture to the New World.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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