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Back to America: A.D. 901 to 1000

North america

The far north and canada

The Arctic Thule Culture of northern Canada, northwestern Alaska and western Greenland existed at least from about A.D. 1000 to 1800. The people lived in circular houses, partially subterranean, with whalebone, turf and stone roofs and they used dog sleds with the dogs harnessed in a fan-shape, rather than in tandem. They had Umiak and Kayak boats and represented the final Eskimo Culture of the northern maritime tradition. (Ref. 189 ) Please also see adjacent modules.

Rose Palmer (Ref. 165 ) of the Smithsonian Institute confirms the distinct physical and language characteristics of the Northwest coastal Indians. She describes the Nootka and Kwakiutl people of Vancouver Island as having long, distinct faces with high hooked noses. They used copper and had well built houses 40 to 60 feet square, with gable roof s, fireplaces and doors facing the sea, along with family totems. The Haida of the Queen Charlotte Islands were also of a unique Indian type, larger, more stalwart and of lighter complexion. The women were tall and athletic in contrast to other typical Indian women, who tend to be short and fat. The Haida made long voyages in dug-out canoes of red cedar, some carrying 100 persons and equipment, to as far as Vancouver Island and Puget Sound. Wood carvings on totem poles often 50 to 60 feet high, formed part of the front of their buildings. All of the north coastal Indians remained fairly well isolated from the remainder of the continent and other Indian tribes by virtue of the high coastal mountain ranges which made access inland very difficult. (Ref. 95 , 165 )

Carbon- 14 dating of recent excavations of several buildings and a great hall of an old Viking settlement in northern New Foundland, puts the date as A.D. 1060 (+70 years).

This settlement was probably founded by Leif Erickson, who also apparently went ashore on Baffin Island, calling it "Helluland" and then on down the American coast to Labrador, which he called "Markland". "Vinland", also described by the Norse, undoubtedly was somewhere on the North American coast, possibly Rhode Island, Massachusetts, Labrador or Newfoundland. The latter seems most probable because of the recent excavations, but if so, its wine industry certainly disappeared quickly. At any rate, subsequent to Leif's visit to Vinland, Thorfinn Karlsefne settled this new land with 60 men and 5 women, along with cattle and other animals. Although at first friendly with the native aborigines, eventually there was war, with the Indians attacking in swarms by canoe, ultimately driving out the newcomers. Two Indian boys were captured, however, subsequently taught Norwegian, baptized and taken to Greenland where the colonies were thriving. The warm climatic situation of this century, which allowed an ice-free North Atlantic Ocean, certainly was a factor in these Norse voyages. (Ref. 160 , 176 , 39 , 95 , 156 )

The united states

The Mississippian and related cultures continued to exist in the mid-continent. Please see the preceding chapters. It should be mentioned, in passing, that Barry Fell (Ref. 66 ) feels that numerous artifacts which have been found along the Mississippi and Arkansas rivers, as well as among the Algonquin and Iroquois Indians, are in fact replicas of old Irish-Norse coins and English pennies which had been paid as Danegeld, and originally distributed along the North American coast and rivers by additional voyages of Leif Erickson. Gloria Farley, a co-worker of Fell, has described finding Norse runes in Oklahoma rock inscriptions, dating to about 1050. (Ref. 215 , 66 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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