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America

Back to America: A.D. 1701 to 1800

North america

The far north and canada

Alaska

The century opened with bloody warfare for the small Russian settlement at Fort St. Michael on Baranov Island, when the Tlingits Indians massacred the men and carried off the women to their village at the site of present day Sitka, in 1802. Two years later Baranov's men, regrouped in kayaks and supported by a Russian warship, bombarded Sitka and finally forced an Indian withdrawal. The Russians then built a new fort and in the years that followed the missionary Father Ivan Veniaminov built a cathedral, started a seminary, saved the Tlingits from a small-pox epidemic by vaccination, taught the Aleuts carpentry, blacksmithing and brickmaking, created an Aleut alphabet and with that translated the Gospels. Baranov was followed by 13 Russian governors, chiefly naval officers, but there was one prince and one baron. Commerce with San Francisco was brisk, particularly during the latter's gold-rush days. Among other things, 20,000 tons of Alaskan ice, packed in sawdust, was sold in San Francisco at $35 a ton. The zenith of Russian culture at Sitka was about 1820

The Kiksadi clan of Tlingits dominated the hinterland and thus the principal source of Russian food supply. Frequently these clans mounted crippling raids against the Russian mainland settlements, some as late as 1866. Supply ships from Russia had to go around the Cape of Good Hope and in some years none arrived. Many Russians died of scurvy before they learned that potatoes and other vegetables could be grown in the far north. At one point, the Russians attempted to solve their grain problem by establishing Fort Ross, only 90 miles north of the Spanish mission of San Francisco, but the area was not very fertile and they sold out to John Sutter in 1841.

We mentioned in the last chapter that the Russians virtually enslaved the Aleuts, forcing 1/2 of all males between the ages of 18 and 50 to work for very meager compensation. By this policy, along with disease and the use of the white man's firearms, the Aleut population had been reduced to about 1/10 of the original and the Eskimos on the mainland had been cut to about 1/2 by 1857. A massive seal fur industry resulted when a machine was developed which removed the outer layer of bristly guard hairs from the animal. A Moscow journal of 1835 boasted that between 1786 and 1832 there had been 3,178,561 Pribilof fur seals killed. Soon the yield decreased and both European and American fur markets declined so that the fur based economy ceased to be very profitable. The worst losses were in the 1820s.

When Russia was defeated in the Crimean War in 1856 she was desperate for money, and that, along with an increasing interest in China rather than America, was the big f actor leading to the sale of Alaska's 375,000,000 acres to the United States in 1867 for $7,200,000.

That purchase, arranged by Secretary of State William Henry Seward of the Andrew Johnson administration, resulted in the name "Seward's Folly" for that region for many years.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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