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The far east

Back to The Indian Subcontinent: 200 to 101 B.C.

China and manchuria ("former" han dynasty continued)

At its peak the Han Empire under Wu-Ti was exceedingly prosperous, rivaling Rome both in size and wealth. The capital city Ch'ang-an had 250,000 in a total empire population of about 57,000,000. While the progress of mechanization was impeded in Greece and Rome by the number of available slaves, China had too many efficient coolies. (Ref. 260 ) We noted above that Wu-Ti expanded into the Tarim Basin in the west by defeating the Hsiung-nu and this pursuance continued even after Wu-Ti's death. In 51 B.C. the chieftain of the southern Huns came to Ch'ang-an to submit as an Han vassal, while the northern group continued to be chased far westward into Samarkand, there to be finally defeated by a five-pronged Han force in 36 B.C. But in China proper the economic controls lapsed and nepotism and cronyism resulted in the loss of the imperial family's power.

A type of national university had come into existence to prepare men for bureaucratic careers and by the end of the century the enrollment had reached 3,000. In the Han militia system all males registered for military service at 21 years of age and were eligible for service between the ages of 23 and 56 years. Allegedly every male was to have military service in his home county one month every year and one year of continuous service sometime in a guard unit, but soon a practice of paying poorer men to serve one's time became standard practice. In addition to using cowrie shells as currency, copper coins, later called sapekes by the Europeans, came into use. Both of these competed with salt and grain as a medium of exchange. (Ref. 260 ) In this century the Chinese drilled deep holes, presumably for water, in Szechwan and their drilling methods were copied centuries later in the United States. (Ref. 213 )

In early China the laws required punishments and torture that equaled that seen in Europe at a much later period. Death penalties were carried out by beheading or by chop- ping the offender in two at the waist. In cases of treason or some equally serious crime, all the offender's relatives might also be put to death. Lesser offenders might simply be mutilated by tattooing, amputation of nose or feet or castration. Imprisonment was rare, but hard labor on government construction was used for minor offenders. In Emperor Ch'eng's reign (32 - 7 B.C.) authority was delegated to his mother's family, the Wang clan. Ssu-me Ch'ien was a great Chinese historian of this era. (Ref. 8 , 101 )

In Manchuria a new state of Koguryo was founded in this century and soon also included northern Korea.


The Yayoishiki Culture continued into this century with rice culture appearing about 100 B.C. Animism and totemism, sex and ancestor worship satisfied the religious needs of these early Japanese. Out of the latter worship came the oldest official living religions of the nation - Shinto. This faith, called the Way of the Gods, took three forms; the domestic cult of family ancestors, the communal cult of clan ancestors and the state cult of the imperial line with its founding gods.

A Mongolian castaway group on Kyushu multiplied so rapidly as farmers that they took over all the arable land on the island and while some of the aborigines became serfs, others took to the hills from where they continued to raid the farmers for centuries. The new Kyushu community was organized as a loose confederacy of villages, each ruled by its own matriarch or fertility mother, and the woman leader of the most powerful town was called the "Sun Goddess". Early Chinese traders called her "Pime-ko", or "Hime-Ko", meaning "Sunshine Child". (Ref. 213 , 136 , 12 ) In an attempt to obtain more sea-food to feed the expanding population, a great ship-building effort was made in 81 B.C. (Ref. 222 )


Most of Korea was controlled by the Han Chinese at this time, but the northern portion was allied with Manchuria in the new state of Koguryo.

Southeast asia

Already controlling North Vietnam, the Chinese now added central Viet Nam to their territory which they were to maintain for centuries. No other significant changes occurred.

Forward to The Indian Subcontinent: 0 to A.D. 100

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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