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In groups of 4-5, discuss the following questions:

  • Think about some other examples where scientific knowledge has changed because of new ideas and discoveries:
    • What were these new ideas?
    • Were they controversial? If so, why?
    • What role (if any) did technology play in developing these new ideas?
    • How have these ideas affected the way we understand the world?
  • Many people come up with their own ideas about how the world works. The same is true in science. So how do we, and other scientists, know what to believe and what not to? How do we know when new ideas are 'good' science or 'bad' science? In your groups, discuss some of the things that would need to be done to check whether a new idea or theory was worth listening to, or whether it was not.
  • Present your ideas to the rest of the class.

Electron configuration

The energy of electrons

You will remember from our earlier discussions that an atom is made up of a central nucleus, which contains protons and neutrons and that this nucleus is surrounded by electrons. Although these electrons all have the same charge and the same mass, each electron in an atom has a different amount of energy . Electrons that have the lowest energy are found closest to the nucleus where the attractive force of the positively charged nucleus is the greatest. Those electrons that have higher energy, and which are able to overcome the attractive force of the nucleus, are found further away.

Energy quantisation and line emission spectra (not in caps, included for completeness)

If the energy of an atom is increased (for example when a substance is heated), the energy of the electrons inside the atom can be increased (when an electron has a higher energy than normal it is said to be "excited"). For the excited electron to go back to its original energy (called the ground state), it needs to release energy. It releases energy by emitting light. If one heats up different elements, one will see that for each element, light is emitted only at certain frequencies (or wavelengths). Instead of a smooth continuum of frequencies, we see lines (called emission lines) at particular frequencies. These frequencies correspond to the energy of the emitted light. If electrons could be excited to any energy and lose any amount of energy, there would be a continuous spread of light frequencies emitted. However, the sharp lines we see mean that there are only certain particular energies that an electron can be excited to, or can lose, for each element.

You can think of this like going up a flight of steps: you can't lift your foot by any amount to go from the ground to the first step. If you lift your foot too low you'll bump into the step and be stuck on the ground level. You have to lift your foot just the right amount (the height of the step) to go to the next step, and so on. The same goes for electrons and the amount of energy they can have. This is called quantisation of energy because there are only certain quantities of energy that an electron can have in an atom. Like steps, we can think of these quantities as energy levels in the atom. The energy of the light released when an electron drops down from a higher energy level to a lower energy level is the same as the difference in energy between the two levels.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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