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Listing 9 . Cannot be assigned to C.

//Following will not execute. // Causes a runtime exception.//C v2 = (C)var;

The code in Listing 9 attempts to cast the reference to type C and assign it to a reference variable of type C .

A runtime exception

Although the program will compile, it won't execute. An attempt to execute the statement in Listing 9 results in an exception at runtime.

As a result, it was necessary to convert the statement into a comment in order to execute the program.

Another failed attempt

Similarly, an attempt to cast the reference to type B and assign it to a reference variable of type C , as shown in Listing 10 , won't compile.

Listing 10 . Another failed attempt.

//Following will not compile //C v3 = (B)var;//Pause until user presses any key. Console.ReadKey();}//end Main }//end class Polymorph02

The problem here is that the class C is not a superclass of the class named B . Therefore, a reference of type B is not assignment-compatible with a reference variable of type C .

Again, it was necessary to convert the statement to a comment in order to compile the program.

The end of the program

Listing 10 signals the end of the Main method, the end of the class, and the end of the program.

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 11 . Use that code to create a C# console project. Compile and run the project. Experiment with the code,making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as they do.

Run my program

Click here to download a zip file containing my version of the program. Extract the folder named Polymoeph02 from the zip file and save it somewhere on your disk. Start Visual C# 2010 Express and select Open Project... from the File menu. Navigate to the project folder and select the file with the extension of .sln . This should cause the project to open and be ready to run or debug as described in the earlier module titled Getting Started .


This module discusses type conversion for primitive and reference types.

A value of a particular type may be assignment-compatible with variables of other types.

If the type of a value is not assignment-compatible with a variable of a given type, it may be possible to perform a cast on the value to change its typeand assign it to the variable as the new type. For primitive types, this will often result in the loss of information.

In general, numeric values of primitive types can be assigned to any variable whose type represents a numeric range that is as wide as or wider than the rangeof the value's type. (Values of type bool can only be assigned to variables of type bool .)

With respect to reference types, the reference to an object instantiated from a given class can be assigned to any of the following without the use of a cast:

  • Any reference variable whose type is the same as the class from which the object was instantiated.
  • Any reference variable whose type is a superclass of the class from which the object was instantiated.
  • Any reference variable whose type is an interface that is implemented by the class from which the object was instantiated.
  • Any reference variable whose type is an interface that is implemented by a superclass of the class from which the object was instantiated.
  • A couple of other cases involving interfaces that extend other interfaces.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Mueller Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Xna game studio. OpenStax CNX. Feb 28, 2014 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11634/1.6
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