# 3.1 Structure

 Page 1 / 2

## Structure of the atom

As a result of the work done by previous scientists on atomic models (that we discussed in "Models of the Atom" ), scientists now have a good idea of what an atom looks like. This knowledge is important because it helps us to understand why materials have different properties and why some materials bond with others. Let us now take a closer look at the microscopic structure of the atom.

So far, we have discussed that atoms are made up of a positively charged nucleus surrounded by one or more negatively charged electrons . These electrons orbit the nucleus.

Before we look at some useful concepts we first need to understand what electrons, protons and neutrons are.

## The electron

The electron is a very light particle. It has a mass of $9,11×{10}^{-31}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{kg}$ . Scientists believe that the electron can be treated as a point particle or elementary particle meaning that it can't be broken down into anything smaller. The electron also carries one unit of negative electric charge which is the same as $1,6×{10}^{-19}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{C}$ (Coulombs).

The electrons determine the charge on an atom. If the number of electrons is the same as the number of protons then the atom will be neutral. If the number of electrons is greater than the number of protons then the atom will be negatively charged. If the number of electrons is less than the number of protons then the atom will be positively charged. Atoms that are not neutral are called ions. Ions will be covered in more detail in a later chapter. For now all you need to know is that for each electron you remove from an atom you loose $-1$ of charge and for each electron that you add to an atom you gain $+1$ of charge. For example, the charge on an atom of sodium after removing one electron is $-1$ .

## The nucleus

Unlike the electron, the nucleus can be broken up into smaller building blocks called protons and neutrons . Together, the protons and neutrons are called nucleons .

## The proton

Each proton carries one unit of positive electric charge. Since we know that atoms are electrically neutral , i.e. do not carry any extra charge, then the number of protons in an atom has to be the same as the number of electrons to balanceout the positive and negative charge to zero. The total positive charge of a nucleus is equal to the number of protons in the nucleus. The proton is much heavierthan the electron (10 000 times heavier!) and has a mass of $1,6726×{10}^{-27}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{kg}$ . When we talk about the atomic mass of an atom, we are mostly referring to the combined mass of the protons and neutrons, i.e. the nucleons.

## The neutron

The neutron is electrically neutral i.e. it carries no charge at all. Like the proton, it is much heavier than the electron and its mass is $1,6749×{10}^{-27}\phantom{\rule{2pt}{0ex}}\mathrm{kg}$ (slightly heavier than the proton).

## Interesting fact

Rutherford predicted (in 1920) that another kind of particle must be present in the nucleus along with the proton. He predicted this becauseif there were only positively charged protons in the nucleus, then it should break into bits because of the repulsive forces between the like-charged protons! Also,if protons were the only particles in the nucleus, then a helium nucleus (atomic number 2) would havetwo protons and therefore only twice the mass of hydrogen. However, it is actually four times heavier than hydrogen. This suggested that there must be something else inside the nucleus as well as the protons.To make sure that the atom stays electrically neutral, this particle would have to be neutral itself. In 1932 James Chadwick discovered the neutron and measured its mass.

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
The fundamental frequency of a sonometer wire streached by a load of relative density 's'are n¹ and n² when the load is in air and completly immersed in water respectively then the lation n²/na is
Properties of longitudinal waves