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(Note that while the containment hierarchy of local classes is independent of the inheritance hierarchy, it is technically possible toestablish an inheritance relationship between a local class and one of its enclosing classes. For example, by making a couple of minor modifications,it is possible to cause the local class B in this program to extend the enclosing class A instead of the top-level class Y .)

The controlling class

The entire controlling class named InnerClasses07 , including the main method and a static variable named baseTime , is shown in Listing 1 .

The static variable named baseTime is initialized with the current date and time in milliseconds (relative to January 1, 1970). This static variable is used later as a base to establish the relative points in time thatcertain activities occur during the execution of the program.

The main method

The main method shown in Listing 1 instantiates a new object of the class named A and calls the method named meth on that object.

This method will sequentially instantiate two separate objects of a local class named B that is defined inside the method named meth . Then the method named meth will call a method named showB on each of those objects, causing them to display data values that illustrate the characteristicsof local classes.

The class named X

The top-level class named X is shown in Listing 2 .

The class named A extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy. Note that thisclass defines and initializes a protected instance variable, which will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

(Somewhat surprisingly, you will also see later that this protected instance variable belonging to the superclass of the enclosing class A is also accessible by methods belonging to an object of the local class viathe containment hierarchy.)

The class named Y

The top-level class named Y is shown in Listing 3 .

The local class named B extends this class to illustrate the difference between the inheritance hierarchy and the containment hierarchy.

Note that this class defines and initializes a protected instance variable. It alsooverrides the toString method, which is inherited from the Object class.

The instance variable and the overridden toString method will be accessed later to illustrate the inheritance hierarchy.

The class named A

The code in Listing 4 shows the beginning of the top-level class named A .

This code declares and initializes a private instance variable named aTime , which establishes the relative time that an object of class A is instantiated.

This private instance variable will be accessed directly by code belonging to an object of the local class B , which is contained by an object of the class A .

Listing 4 also shows the constructor for class A , which displays the time whenever an object is instantiated from class A .

The screen output

The code shown earlier in the main method of Listing 1 instantiates an object of class A . This causes the screen output shown in Figure 2 .

(Note that the relative time output value on your system may be different, depending on the speed of your system and the impact of otherapplications that may be running concurrently.)

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Berger describes sociologists as concerned with
Mueller Reply
what is hormones?
Wellington
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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