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A.d. 1301 to 1400

Backward to A.D. 1201 to 1300

The "Black Death" made its first appearance in Europe in this century. In the middle this period there was a world-wide depression manifested in Europe by the decline of the Champagne airs and the reduction of trade in general. In the East it was noticeable in the breakdown of the trans-Eurasian trade route previously established by the Mongols (although the land routes were never broken for very long) and possibly by the victory of the peasant revolt which brought the Mings to power in China. Yet there was continued trade throughout the southern seas from South China to the Mediterranean. The regular use of the decimal system and the abacus were accompaniments and stimulants of this trade. (Ref. 260 , 279 )

The christian church

This was not a good era for the Catholic Christian Church. The states of Europe began to be supreme over the papacy and the various temporal rulers argued on the appointments of popes so that if the current choice did not please them, they simply appointed another pope of their own. At the death of Pope Boniface in 1304, Clement V moved the papacy from Rome to Bordeaux and later to Avignon, appointed his own French cardinals and was supposedly under the thumb of Philip the Fair, king of France. The next French pope was John XXII, but a German group had a second one, Nicholas IV, appointed at the Vatican and the period of the Great Schism began, to last from 1378 to 1417.

Nicholas was taken prisoner by John and died in a cell; when John XXII died he left a tremendous estate, including 18 million gold florins in specie and 7 million in plate and jewels. The other popes of this century need not be detailed, as none contributed much to the progress of the church or mankind. In Europe the Inquisition continued, however, and this alone prevented the complete dismemberment of Christianity. (Ref. 49 )

It must be understood that at that time, particularly in England, there were actually two types of church affiliated groups. The word "religion" was used exclusively to refer to monks and nuns who were allegedly spiritual individuals given over to theology and praying, but not allowed to administer the sacraments. In contrast, the priests were called the "secular clergy" and were worldly men who could grant licences and dispensations, save souls by granting absolution after confession and penance, administer the Sacraments and above all, participate in politics. Many of the European kings ' governments were very largely carried on by priests, many of whom openly kept concubines and were not strangers to alcoholic excesses. Into this state of corruption came William of Ockham, a sceptic who questioned all doctrines of the Church and God and was a strong voice in the uprising of nationalist states against the Universal Church. He influenced John Wycliff, the father of Lollardism, who favored a Christian Church of poverty and service. They also denied that the bread and wine were transubstantiated by the words of the priest during mass and were, therefore, not the actual Body and Blood of Christ. This was considered the worst kind of heresy. Nevertheless, at the end of the century, Wycliff translated the Bible into the English tongue. (Ref. 49 , 291 )

NOTE: Insert 47. The Great Schism 1378-1417

International jewry

In many areas of Europe Jewish persecution worsened with unsubstantiated charges of ritual murder, blood libel, desecration of the Host and well poisoning, especially at the time of the "Black Death" epidemic in 1348. As early as 1306 France had arrested her Jews, stripped them of their possessions and expelled them. England whipped and expelled about 100,000 at the same time. (Ref. 222 )

Forward to A.D. 1401 to 1500

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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