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While Chavez embraced non-violence and passive resistance in the face of police, agricultural grower, and Teamster union aggression, Tijerina took direct action against such entities. Tijerina claimed the various state and federal constitutions gave Indo-Hispanos the right to make citizens’ arrests of those violating laws and treaties. Various state constitutions the U.S. Constitution, and Anglo-Saxon common law place an affirmative duty on citizens to make arrests of those violating the law and also to assist police in arresting those who have broken the law. He claimed that the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo and Spain’s Leyes de las Indias gave Indo-Hispanos inviolate rights to culture, land, and heritage. And, he went in pursuit of those he deemed must be arrested and tried: scientists at Los Alamos Atomic Laboratory in New Mexico and Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court, Warren E. Burger (1969), in Washington, D.C., for example. He collaborated with Martin Luther King, Jr. in developing the Poor People’s Campaign Martin Luther King Jr. envisioned a national campaign based not only on the plight of African Americans but also all other poor people. In 1968 he organized a massive demonstration involving a camp-in at the Washington Monument by the poor of the U.S. known as Tent City. Chicanos, Indians, poor whites, and other minorities joined in this effort. and formed alliances and coalitions with Indios in New Mexico and other states.

Both Chavez and Tijerina internationalized the Chicano Movement in that they traveled outside the United States to publicize their SM’s and seek support for their causes. Tijerina went one step further and engaged in research of land titles and grants in Spain and Mexico for his case against the U.S. He unsuccessfully pressured countries, such as Spain and Mexico, and international bodies, such as the United Nations and the Organization of American States, to present the Indo-Hispano claim to a homeland within the U.S.

For his many physical confrontations with U.S. authorities, both state and federal, Tijerina was jailed repeatedly and finally imprisoned for several years in the federal penitentiary. Imprisonment led to his demise as a civil rights leader given the conditions of parole which included he could not speak about or lead any organization that addressed land grant issues.

The chicano movement in the 1970s and 1980s

Chavez and Tijerina commanded the most attention from all sectors during the 1960s. By the following decade, women and youth of Mexican ancestry had fully joined the universe of SMs and emerging organizations. Chicanas tired of male-centered leadership and social dominance. Some women, of course, had been involved with both the farm workers and the land recovery movement, but most were not. Chicanas sought a feminine-centered SM and organization, which they found in the Comicion Femenil , the organization that took place around school boycotts and strikes, the formation of La Raza Unida Party, and the International Year of the Woman. Many Chicanas exhibited leadership and accomplished major reforms during these two decades but none became as known as the emerging male Chicano leaders.

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
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Source:  OpenStax, Immigration in the united states and spain: consideration for educational leaders. OpenStax CNX. Dec 20, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11150/1.1
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