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As long as it won't create name conflicts, you can tell the compiler that you are "using" the namespace as shown by the first line following the initial commentin Listing 2 . Then you don't need to refer to the namespace when you reference a class belonging to that namespace in your code.

Not much help in this case

In this case, since the Console class was referenced only once, it would have been simpler to join the class name with the namespace nameusing the dot operator and to omit the "using" declaration. However, in those cases where the class name is referenced more than once in the code, it issimpler to declare the namespace at the beginning to avoid having to type it more than once. This is particularly true in the case of the SpriteBatch class shown above where thenamespace name contains several levels separated by periods.

Defining your own namespace

When you define a new class, you should always define the namespace in which it resides. (I believe this is a requirement when developing projects using Visual C#.)

The project file structure

Figure 1 shows the project file structure for the Hello01 project. ( Figure 1 was captured from the Solution Explorer window in the Visual C# IDE.)

Figure 1 . Project file structure.

Missing Figure

The class definition shown in Listing 2 is contained in the file named Program.cs at the bottom of the tree in Figure 1 . Note that this file is contained in the folder named Hello01 . Also note that the folder named Hello01 is a child of another folder named Hello01 at the top of the project tree. (There are two folders named Hello01 in the project tree.)

The Hello01 namespace

The second line following the initial comment in Listing 2 defines the namespace in which the new class resides. Note that it is the name of the folder in whichthe file resides. Note also that it is specified relative to the top of the project tree.

If the folder containing the class happened to be more than one level down in the project tree, as is the case of the Graphics folder that contains the SpriteBatch class, it would be necessary to use periods to trace down the tree.

The call to the ReadKey method

Listing 2 also contains a call to a method named ReadKey , which also belongs to the Console class. The purpose of this call is to cause the execution of the program to block and wait until the userpresses any key. Otherwise, the console window would appear on the computer screen momentarily and then disappear almost as soon as it appears.

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 2 . Use that code to create a Visual C# Console Application project. Build and run the project. Experiment with the code, making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as theydo.

Run my program

Click here to download a zip file containing my version of the program. Extract the folder named Hello01 from the zip file and save it somewhere on your disk. Start Visual C# 2010 Express and select Open Project... from the File menu. Navigate to the project folder and select the file with the extension of .sln . This should cause the project to open and be ready to run or debug as describedin the earlier module titled Getting Started .


You learned something about object-oriented programming in general in this module. You also learned quite a bit about the structure and syntax of anobject-oriented C# program by taking a simple program apart and examining the elements of the program.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Xna0104-What is OOP and Why Should You Care?
  • File: Xna0104.htm
  • Published: 02/24/14

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
is this allso about nanoscale material
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where is the latest information on a no technology how can I find it
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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