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As long as it won't create name conflicts, you can tell the compiler that you are "using" the namespace as shown by the first line following the initial commentin Listing 2 . Then you don't need to refer to the namespace when you reference a class belonging to that namespace in your code.

Not much help in this case

In this case, since the Console class was referenced only once, it would have been simpler to join the class name with the namespace nameusing the dot operator and to omit the "using" declaration. However, in those cases where the class name is referenced more than once in the code, it issimpler to declare the namespace at the beginning to avoid having to type it more than once. This is particularly true in the case of the SpriteBatch class shown above where thenamespace name contains several levels separated by periods.

Defining your own namespace

When you define a new class, you should always define the namespace in which it resides. (I believe this is a requirement when developing projects using Visual C#.)

The project file structure

Figure 1 shows the project file structure for the Hello01 project. ( Figure 1 was captured from the Solution Explorer window in the Visual C# IDE.)

Figure 1 . Project file structure.

Missing Figure

The class definition shown in Listing 2 is contained in the file named Program.cs at the bottom of the tree in Figure 1 . Note that this file is contained in the folder named Hello01 . Also note that the folder named Hello01 is a child of another folder named Hello01 at the top of the project tree. (There are two folders named Hello01 in the project tree.)

The Hello01 namespace

The second line following the initial comment in Listing 2 defines the namespace in which the new class resides. Note that it is the name of the folder in whichthe file resides. Note also that it is specified relative to the top of the project tree.

If the folder containing the class happened to be more than one level down in the project tree, as is the case of the Graphics folder that contains the SpriteBatch class, it would be necessary to use periods to trace down the tree.

The call to the ReadKey method

Listing 2 also contains a call to a method named ReadKey , which also belongs to the Console class. The purpose of this call is to cause the execution of the program to block and wait until the userpresses any key. Otherwise, the console window would appear on the computer screen momentarily and then disappear almost as soon as it appears.

Run the program

I encourage you to copy the code from Listing 2 . Use that code to create a Visual C# Console Application project. Build and run the project. Experiment with the code, making changes, and observing the results of your changes. Make certain that you can explain why your changes behave as theydo.

Run my program

Click here to download a zip file containing my version of the program. Extract the folder named Hello01 from the zip file and save it somewhere on your disk. Start Visual C# 2010 Express and select Open Project... from the File menu. Navigate to the project folder and select the file with the extension of .sln . This should cause the project to open and be ready to run or debug as describedin the earlier module titled Getting Started .


You learned something about object-oriented programming in general in this module. You also learned quite a bit about the structure and syntax of anobject-oriented C# program by taking a simple program apart and examining the elements of the program.


This section contains a variety of miscellaneous information.

Housekeeping material
  • Module name: Xna0104-What is OOP and Why Should You Care?
  • File: Xna0104.htm
  • Published: 02/24/14

Financial : Although the Connexions site makes it possible for you to download a PDF file for thismodule at no charge, and also makes it possible for you to purchase a pre-printed version of the PDF file, you should beaware that some of the HTML elements in this module may not translate well into PDF.

I also want you to know that, I receive no financial compensation from the Connexions website even if you purchase the PDF version of the module.

In the past, unknown individuals have copied my modules from cnx.org, converted them to Kindle books, and placed them for sale on Amazon.com showing me as the author. Ineither receive compensation for those sales nor do I know who does receive compensation. If you purchase such a book, please beaware that it is a copy of a module that is freely available on cnx.org and that it was made and published withoutmy prior knowledge.

Affiliation : I am a professor of Computer Information Technology at Austin Community College in Austin, TX.


Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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