2.3 Selection statements

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The flow of control refers to the order in which a program’s statements are executed. Unless directed otherwise, the normal flow of control for all programs is sequential. This means that statements are executed in sequence, one after another, in the order in which they are placed within the program. Selection, repetition and function invocation structures permit the flow of control to be altered in defined ways. This chapter introduces to you C++’s selection statements. Repetition and invocation techniques are presented in the next two chapters.

Relational operators

Relational operators are used to compare two operands for equality and to determine if one numeric value is greater than another. A Boolean value of true or false is returned after two operands are compared. The list of relational operators is given below.

Example:

`a = = b`

`(a*b) != c`

`s == ‘y’`

`x<= 4`

The value of a relational expression such as a>40 depends on the value stored in the variable a.

Logical operators

Logical operators, AND, OR and NOT are used for creating more complex conditions. Like relational operators, a Boolean value of true or false is returned after the logical operation is executed.

When the AND operator,&&, is used with two simple expressions, the condition is true only if both individual expressions are true by themselves.

The logical OR operator, ||, is also applied with two expressions. When using the OR operator, the condition is satisfied if either one or both of the two expressions are true.

The NOT operator,!, is used to change an expression to its opposite state; thus, if the expression has any nonzero value (true),! expression produces a zero value (false). If an expression is false,! expression is true (and evaluates to false).

Example:

`(age>40)&&(term<10)`

`(age>40) || (term<10)`

`!(age>40)`

`( i==j) || (a<b) || complete`

The relational and logical operators have a hierarchy of execution similar to the arithmetic operators. The following table lists the precedence of these operators in relation to the other operators we have used.

Example: Assume the following declarations:

`char key = ‘m’;`

`int i = 5, j = 7, k = 12;`

`double x = 22.5;`

By evaluating the expressions within parentheses first, the following compound condition is evaluated as:

The bool data type

As specified by the ANSO/ISO standard, C++ has a built-in Boolean data type, bool, containing the two values true and false. As currently implemented, the actual values represented by the bool values, true and false, are the integer values 1 and 0, respectively. For example, consider the following program, which declares two Boolean variables:

Example

`#include<iostream.h>`

`int main()`

`{`

`bool t1, t2;`

`t1 = true;`

`t2 = false;`

`cout<<“The value of t1 is “<<t1`

`<<“\n and the value of t2 is “<<t2<<endl;`

`return 0;`

`}`

The output of the program is:

The value of t1 is 1

and the value of t2 is 0

The if-else statement

The if-else statement directs the computer to select a sequence of one or more statements based on the result of a comparison.

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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