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Rutherford's model of the atom

The bohr model

There were, however, some problems with this model: for example it could not explain the very interesting observation that atoms only emit light at certain wavelengths or frequencies. Niels Bohr solvedthis problem by proposing that the electrons could only orbit the nucleus in certain special orbits at different energy levels around the nucleus. The exact energies of the orbitals in each energy level depends onthe type of atom. Helium for example, has different energy levels to Carbon. If an electron jumps down from a higher energy level to a lower energy level, then light is emitted fromthe atom. The energy of the light emitted is the same as the gap in the energy between the two energy levels. You can read more about this in "Energy quantisation and electron configuration" . The distance between the nucleus and the electron in the lowest energy level of a hydrogen atom is known as the Bohr radius .

Interesting fact

Light has the properties of both a particle and a wave! Einstein discovered that light comes in energy packets which are called photons . When an electron in an atom changes energy levels, a photon of light is emitted. This photon has the same energy asthe difference between the two electron energy levels.

Other models of the atom

Although the most common model of the atom is the Bohr model, scientists have not stopped thinking about other ways to describe atoms. One of the most important contributions to atomic theory (the field of science that looks at atoms) was the development of quantum theory. Schrodinger, Heisenberg, Born and many others have had a role in developing quantum theory. The description of an atom by quantum theory is very complex and is only covered at university level.

Models of the atom

Match the information in column A, with the key discoverer in column B.

Column A Column B
Discovery of electrons and the plum pudding model Niels Bohr
Arrangement of electrons Marie Curie and her husband, Pierre
Atoms as the smallest building block of matter Ancient Greeks
Discovery of the nucleus JJ Thomson
Discovery of radiation Rutherford

The size of atoms

It is difficult sometimes to imagine the size of an atom, or its mass, because we cannot see an atom and also because we are not used to working with such small measurements.

How heavy is an atom?

It is possible to determine the mass of a single atom in kilograms. But to do this, you would need very modern mass spectrometers and the values you would get would be very clumsy and difficult to use. The mass of a carbon atom, for example, is about 1 , 99 × 10 - 26 kg , while the mass of an atom of hydrogen is about 1 , 67 × 10 - 27 kg . Looking at these very small numbers makes it difficult to compare how much bigger the mass of one atom is when compared to another.

To make the situation simpler, scientists use a different unit of mass when they are describing the mass of an atom. This unit is called the atomic mass unit (amu). We can abbreviate (shorten) this unit to just 'u'. Scientists use the carbon standard to determine amu. The carbon standard assigns carbon an atomic mass of 12 u. Using the carbon standard the mass of an atom of hydrogen will be 1 u. You can check this by dividing the mass of a carbon atom in kilograms (see above) by the mass of a hydrogen atom in kilograms (you will need to use a calculator for this!). If you do this calculation, you will see that the mass of a carbon atom is twelve times greater than the mass of a hydrogen atom. When we use atomic mass units instead of kilograms, it becomes easier to see this. Atomic mass units are therefore not giving us the actual mass of an atom, but rather its mass relative to the mass of one (carefully chosen) atom in the Periodic Table. Although carbon is the usual element to compare other elements to, oxygen and hydrogen have also been used. The important thing to remember here is that the atomic mass unit is relative to one (carefully chosen) element. The atomic masses of some elements are shown in the table below.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
What makes metals better to use as wires than non-metals? (please link to bonding type)??? HELP
Yash Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Chemistry grade 10 [caps]. OpenStax CNX. Jun 13, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11303/1.4
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