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Another interpretation that does not suffer from this weakness but that preserves the strengths of the proposed "Balanced Interpretation" has been offered recently by  Professors Hugenholtz and Okediji

"Limitations and exceptions that (1) are not overly broad, (2) do not rob right holders of a real or potential source of income that is substantive, and (3) do not do disproportional harm to the right holders, will pass the test." 
This proposal is grounded in a long and detailed discussion of the evolution of the three-step test and deserves careful consideration.

An important general lesson may be derived from this situation: The meaning of copyright laws of all sorts -- including international copyright agreements -- is often less clear than first appears. Many rules have not yet been interpreted authoritatively. This creates opportunities for librarians or other representatives of developing countries to argue for and act upon interpretations that give them more freedom when shaping their own laws. In subsequent modules, we will come across several such opportunities.

Perspectives for developing countries

Some observers believe that governments should upgrade and harmonize copyright law globally because it promotes the arts and rewards creators. They argue that granting an exclusive right in creative expression provides a necessary incentive for copyright holders to invest in the creation and distribution of expressive works. This stimulates cultural expression and benefits citizens. Suppression of competition from "pirates," they argue, is necessary to allow local creative industries to flourish.

However, others argue that implementing the same copyright law in all countries has a disproportionate and negative effect on developing countries. Most developed nations have powerful and lucrative entertainment, educational, and research industries that export copyrighted works, and thus benefit from strong copyright law. Developing countries, on the other hand, typically import copyrighted works. Thus, it is argued, the residents of developing countries have to pay more royalties and fees as a result of enhanced copyright protection. It is also argued that restrictive copyright laws prevent many governments from addressing important social needs -- such as providing their citizens with good educations -- because critical information is locked up by the law.

The latter set of arguments have prompted a growing number of groups in developing countries to resist the imposition of the minimum standards of copyright protection set by the TRIPS Agreement and the even harsher duties that are imposed on developing countries by FTAs. They call for a better balance between, on one hand, providing incentives to creators and rewarding their creative activities and, on the other hand, promoting access to knowledge and research, in order to spur economic growth and foster innovation in the developing countries.

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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