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Balancing and Targeting a Comprehensive ABC Approach

A USAID-funded review of data finds the need for appropriately balanced and targeted ABC approaches. This study hasanalyzed how ABC behaviors appear to have affected HIV prevalence in three countries where prevalence has declined (Uganda, Zambia, and Thailand)compared to three countries where there is little evidence of a decline (Cameroon, Kenya, and Zimbabwe). In the case of the five African countries,it found that significant delays in the onset of sexual activity, declines in premarital sex, and large declines in extramarital sex and multiplesexual partnerships occurred in Uganda and Zambia during the 1990s, while comparable changes appear not to have occurred in Cameroon, Kenya, orZimbabwe. Condom use increased greatly in all of the countries.

In September 2002, USAID hosted a meeting of technical experts from HIV/AIDS programs and research institutions to consider theevidence regarding ABC behavior change approaches to HIV prevention. The meeting identified areas of consensus that may have importantimplications for program planning and decision making:

There is a clear need for a balance of A, B, and C interventions. One approach should not be favored over another.Approaches should instead be combined as appropriate based on the local cultural context as well as the state of the HIV epidemic.

Interventions need to be targeted for efficiency and respond to crucial differences among target groups. For example, balancedABC approaches might be implemented in the form of A interventions promoting sexual deferral to youth;B interventions promoting partner reduction to those not in monogamous relationships; and C interventionspromoting condom use to highly sexually active groups, especially sex workers and their clients, and people living with HIV/AIDS.

The nature of the epidemic is a major factor in determining the appropriate balance. In Southeast Asia, HIV/AIDS is stilllargely confined to high-risk populations, in which correct and consistent condom use is relatively easy to implement. In many Africancountries, the epidemic is more generalized and thus requires an appropriate mix of A, B, and C approaches.

Continuing studies are needed. Continuing studies in other countries will yield more evidence of the most effective balance ofABC approaches in different settings. Senegal, for example, has achieved Uganda-like behavior change with a balanced ABC program in alow-prevalence setting. Further study of such successes is needed to consider their potential application elsewhere.

The a-b-c approach: abstinence

Abstinence means avoiding sex. Sex can have different definitions for different people. Some people define sex aspenis-in-vagina intercourse. Others may include oral sex, anal sex, or even kissing and touching. The way you define "sex" determines whatactivities to avoid if you want to abstain. For the purpose of this page, we will focus on abstaining from penis-in-vagina intercourse because thegoal of these materials is to help you prevent pregnancy.

Please remember that it's OK to go through periods of your life, or periods of time within a single relationship, in which you wantto abstain and periods in which you want to have sex. The decision to have sex is YOUR decision, each and every time.


  • Abstinence is free and available to everyone.
  • It's extremely effective at preventing both pregnancy and infection.
  • It can be started at any time in your life.
  • Abstinence may encourage people to build relationships in other ways.
  • It may be the course of action which you feel is right for you and makes you feel good about yourself.

The a-b-c approach - be faithful

To "B-e Faithful" as a means of AIDS prevention means to remain loyal to one's sexual partner. By doing such, one lowers the risk ofexposure to HIV-infected individuals. By choosing to remain in a faithful, committed relationship each partner is choosing to be exclusive and onlyhave sexual intercourse with one another. Thus, if you choose to be sexually active, rather than to abstain from sex, being faithful to your sexulpartner is the next step in the ABC prevention plan as a way to reduce the risk of transmitting HIV.

The a-b-c approach: condoms

Studies have shown that latex condoms are highly effective in preventing HIV transmission when used consistently andcorrectly. These studies looked at uninfected people considered to be at very high risk of infection because they were involved in sexualrelationships with HIV-infected people. The studies found that even with repeated sexual contact, 98-100 percent of those people who used latexcondoms correctly and consistently did not become infected.

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Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Hiv-aids for educators. OpenStax CNX. Mar 07, 2006 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10329/1.6
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