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Paper currency was monopolized by the government in 1024. Movable type was available in 1040 as the invention of Pi Cheng, but little use was made of this and block type continued in use for a great profusion of literature. The compass was invented in the late part of this century. Inoculation for small-pox was accomplished by putting the crusts of pustules from active cases into the nose, a process which may have come from India. (Ref. 101 , 125 , 213 , 260 )

The years of the administration of Wang An Shih, Socialist prime minister as well as poet and writer, were from 1069 to 1076. He promoted regulation of industry, made codes of wages and prices, nationalized commerce, had state insurance against unemployment, poverty and old age and held examinations for public office. Wang An Shih considered that the carrying of arms was a disgrace, yet at the beginning of his term of office 80% of the government income was needed to support the approximately 1,000,000 despised soldiers. (Ref. 279 ) As taxes increased and military requirements expanded in order to repel northern invaders, opposition arose and finally the emperor discharged this illustrious premier and all those socialistic measures disappeared. (Ref. 46 )

The main part of Manchuria, as well as adjacent Inner Mongolia, was ruled throughout this century, as well as the previous one, by the Liao Dynasty of the Khitan tribe. In the northwest another powerful kingdom, the Hsi-hsia, was founded by the Tibetan Tanguts in Ninghsia and Kansu (now Gansu). Both of these groups tended to raid the classical Chinese borders, but they were kept pretty well in check by "brotherly gifts" from the Sung court of large amounts of silver and bolts of silk

It is interesting to recall that at this same time the English were similarly paying Danegeld to hold off the Danes
Even then, punitive campaigns had to be launched against the Tanguts in 1069 and again in 1081 - 1082. Sung China had a standing army of 1,250,000 by this time, but the people were losing the will to fight. In the far north of eastern Manchuria among the proto-Manchu Jurchen tribes, a new leader appeared who was later to give China much trouble. This was Wan-yen a-Kuta (1068-1123). His people were originally forest hunters in the mountains of eastern Manchuria but they became tough cavalrymen whom both the Khitans and the Koreans tried to hold back by constructing walls and palisades. (Ref. 8 , 101 )

Japan

On the political front, this was the apex of the Fujiwara period. Michinaga's rule over his clan and the state resulted in some of the most brilliant decades of artistic and literary achievement, although there was much turbulence among the monks with frequent marches upon the capital and some actual fighting. In about 1080 the Minamoto clan in eastern and northern Japan began to establish dominance. The island population was not large enough to enable such killer diseases as measles to become endemic childhood illnesses and serious, repeated epidemics of these held back economic and cultural development of the islands. (Ref. 140 )

Korea

The greater part of this peninsula continued to be controlled by the kingdom of Koryo. As mentioned above, the Koreans were threatened by the Jurchen Manchurians and by 1044 the former had completed a great wall across the northern border of their country to keep out the invaders. (Ref. 101 )

Southeast asia

Mainland southeast asia

Burma--In the first 1,000 years of the Christian era Indian forms of society, religion and arts had been carried to Burma by traders and colonists, but in this 11th century, having conquered and absorbed their non-Burmese neighbors, including Mon, Shans, Karens and Arakanese, the Burmese established their own kingdom which was to last 200 years.

King Anawratha introduced Buddhism, ruling from Pagan in upper Burma on the Irrawaddy River, as the major political and artistic center. The Burmese language was developed and Buddhist scriptures were translated into this tongue. (Ref. 19 , 175 )

Thailand

This became a province of the great Khmer Empire of Cambodia in this century. It was a river empire on the lower Mekong. (Ref. 19 )

Angkor

The main Khmer kingdom continued toward the peak of its civilization around Angkor. (Ref. 176 )

Champa: annam

This area, which is now North Viet Nam, became independent of China. This was the source of early maturing rice which, when imported in China, allowed the two harvests a year.

Indonesia and adjacent islands

Sumatra--Srivijuya was a prominent, Indianized state which was attacked by the Cholas of southern India near the end of the century. Following this attack their empire began to decline.

Java

In 1006 a disaster struck in the center of Java in the region of the great temple of Borobudur. A devastating earthquake and the eruption of the volcano Merapi covered the landscape and the temple with lava, ash and land slides. The population fled, probably to the eastern part of the island where Majapahit arose as another great Indianized state. The holy Buddhist place was abandoned and forgotten for more than 800 years, with time and weather and earthquakes taking their toll. (Ref. 286 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 1101 to 1200

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Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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