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Paper currency was monopolized by the government in 1024. Movable type was available in 1040 as the invention of Pi Cheng, but little use was made of this and block type continued in use for a great profusion of literature. The compass was invented in the late part of this century. Inoculation for small-pox was accomplished by putting the crusts of pustules from active cases into the nose, a process which may have come from India. (Ref. 101 , 125 , 213 , 260 )

The years of the administration of Wang An Shih, Socialist prime minister as well as poet and writer, were from 1069 to 1076. He promoted regulation of industry, made codes of wages and prices, nationalized commerce, had state insurance against unemployment, poverty and old age and held examinations for public office. Wang An Shih considered that the carrying of arms was a disgrace, yet at the beginning of his term of office 80% of the government income was needed to support the approximately 1,000,000 despised soldiers. (Ref. 279 ) As taxes increased and military requirements expanded in order to repel northern invaders, opposition arose and finally the emperor discharged this illustrious premier and all those socialistic measures disappeared. (Ref. 46 )

The main part of Manchuria, as well as adjacent Inner Mongolia, was ruled throughout this century, as well as the previous one, by the Liao Dynasty of the Khitan tribe. In the northwest another powerful kingdom, the Hsi-hsia, was founded by the Tibetan Tanguts in Ninghsia and Kansu (now Gansu). Both of these groups tended to raid the classical Chinese borders, but they were kept pretty well in check by "brotherly gifts" from the Sung court of large amounts of silver and bolts of silk

It is interesting to recall that at this same time the English were similarly paying Danegeld to hold off the Danes
Even then, punitive campaigns had to be launched against the Tanguts in 1069 and again in 1081 - 1082. Sung China had a standing army of 1,250,000 by this time, but the people were losing the will to fight. In the far north of eastern Manchuria among the proto-Manchu Jurchen tribes, a new leader appeared who was later to give China much trouble. This was Wan-yen a-Kuta (1068-1123). His people were originally forest hunters in the mountains of eastern Manchuria but they became tough cavalrymen whom both the Khitans and the Koreans tried to hold back by constructing walls and palisades. (Ref. 8 , 101 )


On the political front, this was the apex of the Fujiwara period. Michinaga's rule over his clan and the state resulted in some of the most brilliant decades of artistic and literary achievement, although there was much turbulence among the monks with frequent marches upon the capital and some actual fighting. In about 1080 the Minamoto clan in eastern and northern Japan began to establish dominance. The island population was not large enough to enable such killer diseases as measles to become endemic childhood illnesses and serious, repeated epidemics of these held back economic and cultural development of the islands. (Ref. 140 )


The greater part of this peninsula continued to be controlled by the kingdom of Koryo. As mentioned above, the Koreans were threatened by the Jurchen Manchurians and by 1044 the former had completed a great wall across the northern border of their country to keep out the invaders. (Ref. 101 )

Southeast asia

Mainland southeast asia

Burma--In the first 1,000 years of the Christian era Indian forms of society, religion and arts had been carried to Burma by traders and colonists, but in this 11th century, having conquered and absorbed their non-Burmese neighbors, including Mon, Shans, Karens and Arakanese, the Burmese established their own kingdom which was to last 200 years.

King Anawratha introduced Buddhism, ruling from Pagan in upper Burma on the Irrawaddy River, as the major political and artistic center. The Burmese language was developed and Buddhist scriptures were translated into this tongue. (Ref. 19 , 175 )


This became a province of the great Khmer Empire of Cambodia in this century. It was a river empire on the lower Mekong. (Ref. 19 )


The main Khmer kingdom continued toward the peak of its civilization around Angkor. (Ref. 176 )

Champa: annam

This area, which is now North Viet Nam, became independent of China. This was the source of early maturing rice which, when imported in China, allowed the two harvests a year.

Indonesia and adjacent islands

Sumatra--Srivijuya was a prominent, Indianized state which was attacked by the Cholas of southern India near the end of the century. Following this attack their empire began to decline.


In 1006 a disaster struck in the center of Java in the region of the great temple of Borobudur. A devastating earthquake and the eruption of the volcano Merapi covered the landscape and the temple with lava, ash and land slides. The population fled, probably to the eastern part of the island where Majapahit arose as another great Indianized state. The holy Buddhist place was abandoned and forgotten for more than 800 years, with time and weather and earthquakes taking their toll. (Ref. 286 )

Forward to The Far East: A.D. 1101 to 1200

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Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
yes that's correct
I think
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
nanocopper obvius
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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