# Inferencial statistics: testing the significance of the correlation

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Linear Regression and Correlation: Testing the Significance of the Correlation Coefficient is a part of Collaborative Statistics collection (col10522) by Barbara Illowsky and Susan Dean. The title has been changed from Facts About the Correlation Coefficient for Linear Regression. Roberta Bloom has made major contributions to this module.

## Testing the significance of the correlation coefficient

The correlation coefficient, $r$ , tells us about the strength of the linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ . However, the reliability of the linear model also depends on how many observed data points are in the sample. We need to look at both the value of the correlation coefficient $r$ and the sample size $n$ , together.

We perform a hypothesis test of the "significance of the correlation coefficient" to decide whether the linear relationship in the sample data is strong enough to use to model the relationship in the population.

The sample data is used to compute $r$ , the correlation coefficient for the sample. If we had data for the entire population, we could find the population correlation coefficient. But because we only have sample data, we can not calculate the population correlation coefficient. The sample correlation coefficient, $r$ , is our estimate of the unknown population correlation coefficient.

• The symbol for the population correlation coefficient is $\rho$ , the Greek letter "rho".
• $\rho$ = population correlation coefficient (unknown)
• $r$ = sample correlation coefficient (known; calculated from sample data)

The hypothesis test lets us decide whether the value of the population correlation coefficient $\rho$ is "close to 0" or "significantly different from 0". We decide this based on the sample correlation coefficient $r$ and the sample size $n$ .

## If the test concludes that the correlation coefficient is significantly different from 0, we say that the correlation coefficient is "significant".

• Conclusion: "There is sufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ because the correlation coefficient is significantly different from 0."
• What the conclusion means: There is a significant linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ . We can use the regression line to model the linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ in the population.

## If the test concludes that the correlation coefficient is not significantly different from 0 (it is close to 0), we say that correlation coefficient is "not significant".

• Conclusion: "There is insufficient evidence to conclude that there is a significant linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ because the correlation coefficient is not significantly different from 0."
• What the conclusion means: There is not a significant linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ . Therefore we can NOT use the regression line to model a linear relationship between $x$ and $y$ in the population.
• If $r$ is significant and the scatter plot shows a linear trend, the line can be used to predict the value of $y$ for values of $x$ that are within the domain of observed $x$ values.
• If $r$ is not significant OR if the scatter plot does not show a linear trend, the line should not be used for prediction.
• If $r$ is significant and if the scatter plot shows a linear trend, the line may NOT be appropriate or reliable for prediction OUTSIDE the domain of observed $x$ values in the data.

#### Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
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