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  • The intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the land. Sometimes, it is submerged and at other times exposed, depending upon waves and tides.
  • The pelagic zone includes the open ocean further away from land.
  • The benthic zone is the region below the pelagic zone, but not including the very deepest parts of the ocean. The bottom of this zone consists of sediments.
  • The deepest parts of the ocean are known as the abyssal zone . This zone is very cold (near freezing temperatures), and under great pressure from the overlying mass of water. Mid-ocean ridges occur on the ocean floor inabyssal zones.

Figure Showing zonation

(Source from http://studentweb.cortland.edu/knowles86/Intertidalzone.gif )

Coral reefs are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans around islands or along continental coastlines. They are mostly formed from calcium carbonateproduced by living coral. Reefs provide food and shelter for other organisms and protect shorelines from erosion.

Coral Reef. (Source: Coral Reef Alliance Photobank)

Estuaries are partially enclosed areas where fresh water and silt from streams or rivers mix with salty ocean water. They represent a transition from land to sea andfrom freshwater to saltwater. Estuaries are biologically very productive areas and provide homes for a wide variety of plants, birds and animals.

Terrestrial biomes

Terrestrial biomes characterise ecosystems on land, and are usually identified by the growth form of the dominant vegetation, climate, and/or where they are located on theearth. The major terrestrial biomes include the tundra biome , the forest biome , the grassland biome , and the desert biome . Note that forests and grasslands are defined based on the growth form of the dominant vegetation whereas deserts are classified based on the dominantclimatic conditions. The geographic distribution of terrestrial biomes is mostly influenced by climatic conditions such as rainfall and temperature. Themost recent classification of the biomes in South Africa divides the region into the following seven biomes:

  • Grassland
  • Savanna
  • Succulent Karoo
  • Nama Karoo
  • Forest
  • Fynbos
  • Desert.
  • Thicket

This map shows the different biomes of South Africa

(Source from http://cnx.org/content/m20153/latest/graphics1.png )

Grassland

Grasslands cover regions where moderate rainfall is sufficient for the growth of grasses, but not enough for stands of trees. There are two main types ofgrasslands: tropical grasslands (savannas) and temperate grasslands . Tropical grasslands occur in warm climates such as Africa and very limited regions of Australia. They have a few scattered trees and shrubs, but theirdistinct rainy and dry seasons prevent the formation of tropical forests. Most temperate grasslands are treeless, relatively flat and have rich soil, havebeen replaced by farmland.

(Source from http://www.flickr.com/photos/takver/5884439290/sizes/o/in/photostream )

The information shown below shows the effect of climate change on the grassland biome

Figure Reduction in grassland biome

(Source from http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/changing_biomes_in_south_africa )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
SUBHIKSHA Reply
give the ans as fast as possible
SUBHIKSHA
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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Source:  OpenStax, Siyavula: life sciences grade 10. OpenStax CNX. Apr 11, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11410/1.3
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