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  • The intertidal zone is where the ocean meets the land. Sometimes, it is submerged and at other times exposed, depending upon waves and tides.
  • The pelagic zone includes the open ocean further away from land.
  • The benthic zone is the region below the pelagic zone, but not including the very deepest parts of the ocean. The bottom of this zone consists of sediments.
  • The deepest parts of the ocean are known as the abyssal zone . This zone is very cold (near freezing temperatures), and under great pressure from the overlying mass of water. Mid-ocean ridges occur on the ocean floor inabyssal zones.

Figure Showing zonation

(Source from http://studentweb.cortland.edu/knowles86/Intertidalzone.gif )

Coral reefs are found in the warm, clear, shallow waters of tropical oceans around islands or along continental coastlines. They are mostly formed from calcium carbonateproduced by living coral. Reefs provide food and shelter for other organisms and protect shorelines from erosion.

Coral Reef. (Source: Coral Reef Alliance Photobank)

Estuaries are partially enclosed areas where fresh water and silt from streams or rivers mix with salty ocean water. They represent a transition from land to sea andfrom freshwater to saltwater. Estuaries are biologically very productive areas and provide homes for a wide variety of plants, birds and animals.

Terrestrial biomes

Terrestrial biomes characterise ecosystems on land, and are usually identified by the growth form of the dominant vegetation, climate, and/or where they are located on theearth. The major terrestrial biomes include the tundra biome , the forest biome , the grassland biome , and the desert biome . Note that forests and grasslands are defined based on the growth form of the dominant vegetation whereas deserts are classified based on the dominantclimatic conditions. The geographic distribution of terrestrial biomes is mostly influenced by climatic conditions such as rainfall and temperature. Themost recent classification of the biomes in South Africa divides the region into the following seven biomes:

  • Grassland
  • Savanna
  • Succulent Karoo
  • Nama Karoo
  • Forest
  • Fynbos
  • Desert.
  • Thicket

This map shows the different biomes of South Africa

(Source from http://cnx.org/content/m20153/latest/graphics1.png )


Grasslands cover regions where moderate rainfall is sufficient for the growth of grasses, but not enough for stands of trees. There are two main types ofgrasslands: tropical grasslands (savannas) and temperate grasslands . Tropical grasslands occur in warm climates such as Africa and very limited regions of Australia. They have a few scattered trees and shrubs, but theirdistinct rainy and dry seasons prevent the formation of tropical forests. Most temperate grasslands are treeless, relatively flat and have rich soil, havebeen replaced by farmland.

(Source from http://www.flickr.com/photos/takver/5884439290/sizes/o/in/photostream )

The information shown below shows the effect of climate change on the grassland biome

Figure Reduction in grassland biome

(Source from http://maps.grida.no/go/graphic/changing_biomes_in_south_africa )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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why and for what was five kingdom of classification of organisms introduced
give the ans as fast as possible
Comment on the ozone depletion over the period of 1982 to 1996
Mpho Reply

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