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Grade 9

Hydraulic and pneumatic systems

Module 10

How hydraulic systems work


To be able to describe how a hydraulic system works

[LO 1.3, 2.3]

Pneumatic and hydraulic systems are systems that exert control so that the input-output relationship changes in such a way that tasks can be done faster with less force.

There are two kinds of hydraulic systems:

An open hydraulic system contains a liquid that is placed under pressure, for example water and a garden hose with a pressure nozzle.The system can also contain water that flows in a pipe when there is a difference in pressure, between the two ends of the pipe. Just think of the great advantage this device offers to farmers.

A closed hydraulic system: This consists of a sealed unit containing two pistons that are connected to each other by means of a pipe or reservoir. An input force on the smaller piston is transmitted in all directions by the liquid and imparts an output force on the larger piston. Because the pressure is transmitted in all directions in the liquid, the larger piston can have a greater output because of its larger area. All hydraulic systems work according to this principle.

A syringe can also be used to illustrate the way in which a hydraulic system works.

The piston on which the pressure is exerted, is called the master, or input, piston and the syringe that experiences the effect, is called the server, or output, piston.

In your own words, describe how a hydraulic system works. Also give two examples of hydraulic systems that are commonly used.


To examine the transmission of pressure in a hydraulic system and to be able to describe it

[LO 1.3, 2.3]

You need the following items for this research:

2 x 10 mℓ plastic syringes marked A and B

1 x plastic tube

Connect the cylinders as indicated in the figure and fill the system with water.

Wet both ends of the plastic tube and fix it to the syringes as indicated in the drawing.

1. Push the plunger of cylinder I in to a level of 2 cm deep. Make a note of your observation of the distance output in cylinder B.

2. Push the plunger of cylinder B in to a level of 2 cm deep. Make a note of the distance output in syringe A.

3. Has any mechanical advantage been observed?

4. Summary: The transmission of pressure in a hydraulic system.


To examine the functioning of a pneumatic system and to compare it with that of a hydraulic system

[LO 1.3, 2.3]

Dry plastic syringes A and B and repeat the investigation done in Activity 2. This time draw up air into the cylinders instead of water.

1. What similarities exist between hydraulic and pneumatic systems?

2. What difference is there between the systems with regard to the effective transmission of the pressure?


To examine the influence of the diameter of the piston disc on distance and power output and to be able to discuss it

[LO 1.3, 2.3]

You will need the following items for this investigation:

1 x 10 mℓ cylinder marked A

1 x 20 mℓ cylinder marked C

a tube

Connect the cylinders as indicated in the figure and fill the system with water.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
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Source:  OpenStax, Technology grade 9. OpenStax CNX. Sep 15, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11071/1.1
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