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Reproduction rights, by contrast, are recognized in all countries. Collective management of those rights can be beneficial, especially for libraries, which would find it difficult to negotiate individual licenses for all of the circumstances in which they would like to reproduce materials in their collections -- and are not able to invoke one of the exceptions or limitations discussed in  Module 4 . The organizations that fulfill this function are commonly called Reproduction Rights Organizations (RROs). Their activities are discussed in detail in the  Handbook on Copyright and Related Issues for Libraries prepared by eIFL .

Some reformers have proposed using compulsory collective management to deal with the distribution of works on the Internet through peer-to-peer networks, arguing that such a system would benefit both users (by legalizing file-sharing of copyrighted material [currently unlawful in most countries]) and creators (by providing them with a reliable source of revenue).

An important and often attractive variation on the compulsory-collective-management model is known as "extended collective management." A system of this sort allows an organization to license the works of all copyright holders for a certain creative class once it represents a large percentage of the members of that class. This generally includes foreign and non-member copyright holders.

Collective management organizations often enter into agreements with their sister organizations in other countries in order to represent their repertoires. Sometimes such organizations are also organized into international networks. Examples include the International Confederation of Societies of Authors and Composers (CISAC) and the International Federation of Reprographic Reproduction Organisations (IFRRO). These networks typically participate actively in negotiation of new copyright legislation at the international and national levels.

Technological protection measures

In recent years, the holders of the copyrights in works that are distributed in digital format -- such as software, digital sound recordings, digital video recordings, and electronic books -- have become increasingly dissatisfied with the rights that copyright law gives them and have sought to enhance those rights with  Technological Protection Measures , or TPMs. A simple form of TPM is a copy control -- a technology, often combining hardware and software, that prevents the possessor of a copy of the work from reproducing it. A more complex form is a region control -- for example, a mechanism that restricts the parts of the world in which a particular DVD can be played. Much more elaborate forms of TPMs have been developed recently.

The invention of TPMs enhanced the rights of copyright holders significantly. But soon they found that users employed other technologies to circumvent the TPMs, rendering them useless. To curb such circumventions, they turned once again to the legal system. In the 1996 WCT, they obtained an important weapon: a requirement that all member countries adopt prohibitions on TPM circumvention. The requirement has since been reinforced by regional agreements. For example, both the 2001 EU Information Society Directive and the revised Bangui Agreement (Annex VII, Title I, Part Five), which governs 15 francophone countries in Africa, contain anti-circumvention requirements.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Copyright for librarians. OpenStax CNX. May 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10698/1.2
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