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Glass (2003) argued that federal and state standards enforced by high-stakes achievement tests have lowered education’s capacity to solve social problems:

  • Conformity and obedience to standards distorted by dominant ideologies have supplanted independence and the creative transformation of social problems....fixed standards dictate curricula that ignore the depth and range of students’ backgrounds and knowledge, and substitute demeaning assessments and labels for teachers’ professional judgments. (pp. 164, 165)

Eventually, increased state control worked its way up from PK-12 education, through teacher preparation (Berlak, 2003; Tellez, 2003), to graduate programs in educational leadership (Militello, Gajda,&Bowers, 2009; Roach, Smith,&Boutin, 2010). This increased control took the form of state certification standards and corresponding tests. The control of principal preparation now seems to be gradually shifting from the state to the federal level through the ISLLC standards (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008) and national tests based on the standards like the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) and The Praxis Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision Test (both developed by ETS).

Although state and national government presently constitute the most powerful source of external control, the other sources of control discussed earlier still are present to varying degrees. For example, business interests were strong supporters of the accountability movement (Business Round Table, 1996, 2001, 2002) and continue to exercise considerable influence over education (Sawchuk, 2009). Professors of educational leadership and the readings and learning activities they assign still apply social science theory to educational leadership. And in my home state of Texas, members of the religious right, with significant numbers in the state legislature and on the state board of education, exert considerable influence over schools and universities (see, for example, Blanchette, 2010).

Technical rationality

Angus (1996) argues that the literature on educational administration “encourages scholars and practitioners alike to think in managerial terms and to have in mind notions of systematic organization, prediction and managerial control, reliable and effective techniques, and a concern with means of achieving particular goals” (p. 989).

In Schön’s (1983) critique, technical rationality is based on the belief that university professors and scientists create knowledge through research and theory building and the practitioner’s role is to learn the resulting knowledge and how to apply it. Others have broadened the definition of technical rationality to include any model or plan developed by outside experts that is to be implemented by practitioners in a mechanical fashion. Whether the term is used as Schön defined it or in a more general sense, practitioners are reduced to “instrumental problem solving,” defined by Schön as “a technical procedure to be measured by its effectiveness in achieving a pre-established objective” (p. 165). Applied to principal preparation, technical rationality means that professors of educational leadership present their students with leadership blueprints—based on research and theory in educational leadership or borrowed from other disciplines—to be applied in PK-12 schools.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Beyond convention, beyond critique: toward a third way of preparing educational leaders to promote equity and social justice. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11434/1.2
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