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Glass (2003) argued that federal and state standards enforced by high-stakes achievement tests have lowered education’s capacity to solve social problems:

  • Conformity and obedience to standards distorted by dominant ideologies have supplanted independence and the creative transformation of social problems....fixed standards dictate curricula that ignore the depth and range of students’ backgrounds and knowledge, and substitute demeaning assessments and labels for teachers’ professional judgments. (pp. 164, 165)

Eventually, increased state control worked its way up from PK-12 education, through teacher preparation (Berlak, 2003; Tellez, 2003), to graduate programs in educational leadership (Militello, Gajda,&Bowers, 2009; Roach, Smith,&Boutin, 2010). This increased control took the form of state certification standards and corresponding tests. The control of principal preparation now seems to be gradually shifting from the state to the federal level through the ISLLC standards (Council of Chief State School Officers, 2008) and national tests based on the standards like the School Leaders Licensure Assessment (SLLA) and The Praxis Educational Leadership: Administration and Supervision Test (both developed by ETS).

Although state and national government presently constitute the most powerful source of external control, the other sources of control discussed earlier still are present to varying degrees. For example, business interests were strong supporters of the accountability movement (Business Round Table, 1996, 2001, 2002) and continue to exercise considerable influence over education (Sawchuk, 2009). Professors of educational leadership and the readings and learning activities they assign still apply social science theory to educational leadership. And in my home state of Texas, members of the religious right, with significant numbers in the state legislature and on the state board of education, exert considerable influence over schools and universities (see, for example, Blanchette, 2010).

Technical rationality

Angus (1996) argues that the literature on educational administration “encourages scholars and practitioners alike to think in managerial terms and to have in mind notions of systematic organization, prediction and managerial control, reliable and effective techniques, and a concern with means of achieving particular goals” (p. 989).

In Schön’s (1983) critique, technical rationality is based on the belief that university professors and scientists create knowledge through research and theory building and the practitioner’s role is to learn the resulting knowledge and how to apply it. Others have broadened the definition of technical rationality to include any model or plan developed by outside experts that is to be implemented by practitioners in a mechanical fashion. Whether the term is used as Schön defined it or in a more general sense, practitioners are reduced to “instrumental problem solving,” defined by Schön as “a technical procedure to be measured by its effectiveness in achieving a pre-established objective” (p. 165). Applied to principal preparation, technical rationality means that professors of educational leadership present their students with leadership blueprints—based on research and theory in educational leadership or borrowed from other disciplines—to be applied in PK-12 schools.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Beyond convention, beyond critique: toward a third way of preparing educational leaders to promote equity and social justice. OpenStax CNX. Jul 08, 2012 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11434/1.2
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