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Natural sciences

Grade 4

Planet earth and the universe

Module 49

The seasons in the polar regions


Talking about the seasons in the polar regions

[lo 1.3]

If we look at a globe, the North Pole is at the top and the South Pole is at the bottom. The northern polar region is also known as the Arctic and the southern polar region is called Antarctica. These are some of the coldest parts of the whole world and many parts are covered in ice throughout the year.

Different kinds of ice:

Ice formed on land is called sheet ice.

Ice “rivers” that are formed on mountains and move slowly down the valleys to the sea, are called glaciers.

Floating ice formed on the surface of the sea is called pack ice.

  • As the earth orbits the sun, the weather changes according to seasonal patterns. During the warm summer months more solar energy reaches the earth than in the cold winter months. The nearer you live to the Polar Regions, the more noticeable the changes are. Many animals and plants are affected quite drastically by the seasons and adapt their lives to the seasonal changes.


  • During autumn many animals prepare for winter when it will be very difficult for many of them to find food. They collect food and store it in safe places. Some birds migrate to warmer parts of the world.
  • Some trees lose their leaves in autumn.


  • The fur of most animals becomes thicker to enable them to cope better with the winter cold. They only need a few things to survive the winter: food, shelter and water. Just before the worst cold of winter, some animals eat lots of food and then sleep to conserve energy. We talk about them hibernating. You can help birds in your garden to survive by putting out food for them.
  • Trees that lose their leaves protect the new leaves for the coming year within their buds.


  • Buds and blossoms appear everywhere when it is time for new leaves and flowers. Animals once again become active and prepare their shelters for their young. Animals that have hibernated wake up. The warmth of the spring and spring rains allow the grasses to grow for the animals to eat.
  • Birds that migrated return and prepare nests to lay their eggs. By the time that the eggs hatch in late spring there will be sufficient insects for them to eat.


  • Plants grow quickly because there is sufficient sunlight. Animals shelter in the shade when it becomes too hot. Many animals now give birth to young that need care. Animals look for water to help keep cool.

Organise an exhibition around each season in your class. Bring things to school that relate to specific seasons.


LEARNING OUTCOME 1 : SCIENTIFIC INVESTIGATIONS The learner will be able to act confidently on curiosity about natural phenomena, and to investigate relationships and solve problems in scientific, technological and environmental contexts.

Assessment Standard

We know this when the learner

1.3 evaluates data and provides feedback on observations.


Mr Brain Cell:

  • Why is it so cold at the poles?Answer
  • When the sun shines on the equator, all the rays are close together and therefore it is hot there. Since the earth is ball-shaped, the rays are spread over larger areas closer to the north and south poles. The rays are weaker, and therefore it is cold at the poles.

Mr Brain Cell:

  • How is an iceberg formed?
  • Make one for yourself so you can see the large section of ice that stays submerged, and the section that is above water. What danger does this hold for ships? Which ship sank as a result of hitting an ice-berg in 1912?Answer:
  • Fill a plastic bag with water and freeze it. Remove the ice from the bag and put it in a bowl of water. See how large the part is that stays under water!
  • Large pieces of ice break from icecaps and glaciers and float on the sea. As they drift to warmer seas, they start to melt and break up. However, some icebergs can take up to three years to melt.
  • Titanic

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Natural sciences grade 4. OpenStax CNX. Sep 18, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11096/1.1
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