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According to Baldwin, static members can be useful in some situations, but the overuse of static members can lead to problems similar to those experienced in languages that support global variables and global functions.

Revised: Thu Mar 31 15:56:25 CDT 2016

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Table of contents

Preface

This module is one of a series of modules designed to teach you about Object-Oriented Programming (OOP) using Java.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this document in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figuresand Listings while you are reading about them.

Figures

  • Figure 1 . Output date and time.
  • Figure 2 . Five seconds later.
  • Figure 3 . Same date and time as before.
  • Figure 4 . A new date and time.
  • Figure 5 . Same date and time as before.
  • Figure 6 . Output from overridden toString method in Date class.

Listings

Preview

Static members

There is another aspect of OOP in Java that I have avoided up to this point in the discussion: static variables and static methods.

Tends to complicate ...

I have avoided this topic because, while not particularly difficult, the existence of static members tends to break up the simple structures that I have discussed in previous modules in this collection.

While static members can be useful in some situations, the existence of static members tends to complicate the overall object-oriented structure of Java.

Avoid overuse of static members

Furthermore, the overuse of static members can lead to problems similar to those experienced in languages like C and C++ that support global variables andglobal functions.

When to use static members

I will discuss the use of static members in this module, and will provide some guidelines for their use.

The class named Class

I will also introduce the class named Class and discuss how it enters into the use of static variables and methods.

Instance members versus class members

I will describe the differences between instance members and class members with particular emphasis being placed on their accessibility.

Three kinds of objects

From a conceptual viewpoint, there are at least three kinds of objects involved in a Java program:

  • Ordinary objects
  • Array objects
  • Class objects

Ordinary objects

All (or at least most) of the discussion up to this point in the collection deals with what I have referred to in the above list as ordinary objects .

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Object-oriented programming (oop) with java. OpenStax CNX. Jun 29, 2016 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11441/1.201
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