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Baldwin begins with a discussion of averaging time series, and ends with a discussion of spectral resolution, covering several related topics in between.

Revised: Fri Oct 16 23:12:34 CDT 2015

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Table of contents


This is one in a series of modules designed to teach you about Digital Signal Processing (DSP) using Java. The purpose of the miniseries is topresent the concepts of DSP in a way that can be understood by persons having no prior DSP experience. However, some experience in Java programmingwould be useful. Whenever it is necessary for me to write a program to illustrate a point, I will write it in Java.

Some of what you have previously learned

In a previous module, I explained the meaning of sampling, and discussed some of the problems that occur as a result of high-frequency componentsin the analog signal.

Measure and record the signal amplitude

I told you that to sample an analog signal means to measure and record its amplitude at a series of points in time. The values that you record constitute a sampled time series intended to represent the analog signal.

Avoiding frequency folding

I told you that to avoid problems, the sampling frequency must be a least twice as great as the highest frequency component contained in the analogsignal, and as a practical matter, should probably be somewhat higher.

Sinusoids, frequency, and period

I introduced you to sinusoids, taught you about sine and cosine functions, and introduced the concepts of period and frequency for sinusoids.

Decomposition of time series

I told you that almost everything we will discuss in this series on DSP is based on the premise that every time series can be decomposed into a largenumber of sinusoids, each having its own amplitude and frequency.

The notion of DSP

I told you that DSP is based on the notion that signals in nature can be sampled and converted into a series of numbers. The numbers can be fed into somesort of digital device, which can process the numbers to achieve some desired objective.

Viewing tip

I recommend that you open another copy of this module in a separate browser window and use the following links to easily find and view the Figureswhile you are reading about them.


  • Figure 1 . Products of sinusoids.
  • Figure 2 . Products of sinusoids.
  • Figure 3 . More products of sinusoids.
  • Figure 4 . Five Sampled Sinusoids.
  • Figure 5 . Computed average value of a time series.
  • Figure 6 . Expanded average value of a time series.
  • Figure 7 . Computed average value of a time series.
  • Figure 8 . Computed average value of a time series.
  • Figure 9 . Computed average value of a time series.
  • Figure 10 . Spectra of five different sinusoids of different lengths.
  • Figure 11 . Spectra of five different sinusoids of different lengths.
  • Figure 12 . Spectra of five different time series of different lengths.
  • Figure 13 . Spectra of five different time series of different lengths
  • Figure 14 . Average values of sinusoid products.
  • Figure 15 . Illustration of frequency resolution.
  • Figure 16 . Illustration of frequency resolution.

Questions & Answers

anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
types of nano material
abeetha Reply
I start with an easy one. carbon nanotubes woven into a long filament like a string
many many of nanotubes
what is the k.e before it land
what is the function of carbon nanotubes?
I'm interested in nanotube
what is nanomaterials​ and their applications of sensors.
Ramkumar Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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