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Results

The results section consists of two subsections; item analysis and inferential statistical analyses. First, principals’ responses to items within subscales are reported using the median value and the percentage point differential between positive responses and negative responses for each item. Second, the results from the inferential statistical analyses are presented.

Item analysis

Beliefs about curriculum

Eight items represent principals’ beliefs about curriculum. Principals agreed (median value was 4) with five of eight curriculum items (see Table 1). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing has resulted in principals paying more attention to the school’s curriculum, (b) students’ scores provide feedback to improve the curriculum, (c) high stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test, (d) high stakes testing has led principals to rethink about subject matter that is important to teach, and (e) high stakes testing promotes some subject area content over other subject content. Principals neither agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) with the statement that high stakes test items reflect the content students learn in a school’s curriculum. Finally, principals disagreed (median value of 2) that students’ scores reflect the quality of a school’s curriculum and that high stakes testing is consistent with a balanced curriculum.

Table 1: percentage of responses and descriptive statistics by item for beliefs about curriculum

Item 1 a 2 3 4 5 Mdn M SD
1 High stakes testing has led principals to reassess their beliefs about subject matter that is important to teach. 1 9 7 50 33 4.00 4.04 0.93
2 High stakes testing is consistent with the idea of a balanced curriculum (attention to all subjects). 8 54 12 20 6 2.00 2.62 1.08
3 Students’ scores on a high stakes test accurately portray the quality of a school’s curriculum. 16 48 20 15 1 2.00 2.37 0.96
4 High stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test. 6 23 18 39 15 4.00 3.34 1.15
5 High stakes test items accurately reflect the content students learn through a school’s curriculum. 4 38 24 32 3 3.00 2.92 0.98
6 High stakes testing promotes certain subject area content over other subject area content. 0 7 7 56 30 4.00 4.08 0.82
7 Students’ scores on high stakes test provide feedback for schools to improve the curriculum. 1 7 16 62 15 4.00 3.82 0.81
8 High stakes testing has caused principals to devote more attention to the school’s curriculum. 1 5 7 60 28 4.00 4.08 0.79

Note. a 1 ( Strongly Disagree ), 2 ( Disagree ), 3 ( Neither Agree nor Disagree ), 4 ( Agree ), and 5 ( Strongly Agree ).

Beliefs about teaching

Principals’ beliefs about teaching consist of 10 items . Principals agreed (median value of 4) with four statements (see Table 2). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing motivates teachers to improve the teaching and learning process, (b) students’ scores on a high stakes test provides feedback for teachers to improve their teaching, (c) high stakes testing has increased cooperation among teachers, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the time to teach other subjects’ content. Principals nether agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) that (a) high stakes testing leads to better teaching, (b) the quality of a teacher’s instruction is directly related to student performance, (c) high stakes testing permits teachers to use the full range of their teaching skills, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the teaching and learning process to a student’s test score.

Questions & Answers

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
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what is a peer
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What is meant by 'nano scale'?
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What is STMs full form?
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scanning tunneling microscope
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how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
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Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
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what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
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Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
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research.net
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sciencedirect big data base
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Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
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what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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