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Results

The results section consists of two subsections; item analysis and inferential statistical analyses. First, principals’ responses to items within subscales are reported using the median value and the percentage point differential between positive responses and negative responses for each item. Second, the results from the inferential statistical analyses are presented.

Item analysis

Beliefs about curriculum

Eight items represent principals’ beliefs about curriculum. Principals agreed (median value was 4) with five of eight curriculum items (see Table 1). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing has resulted in principals paying more attention to the school’s curriculum, (b) students’ scores provide feedback to improve the curriculum, (c) high stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test, (d) high stakes testing has led principals to rethink about subject matter that is important to teach, and (e) high stakes testing promotes some subject area content over other subject content. Principals neither agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) with the statement that high stakes test items reflect the content students learn in a school’s curriculum. Finally, principals disagreed (median value of 2) that students’ scores reflect the quality of a school’s curriculum and that high stakes testing is consistent with a balanced curriculum.

Table 1: percentage of responses and descriptive statistics by item for beliefs about curriculum

Item 1 a 2 3 4 5 Mdn M SD
1 High stakes testing has led principals to reassess their beliefs about subject matter that is important to teach. 1 9 7 50 33 4.00 4.04 0.93
2 High stakes testing is consistent with the idea of a balanced curriculum (attention to all subjects). 8 54 12 20 6 2.00 2.62 1.08
3 Students’ scores on a high stakes test accurately portray the quality of a school’s curriculum. 16 48 20 15 1 2.00 2.37 0.96
4 High stakes testing requires teachers to teach to the test. 6 23 18 39 15 4.00 3.34 1.15
5 High stakes test items accurately reflect the content students learn through a school’s curriculum. 4 38 24 32 3 3.00 2.92 0.98
6 High stakes testing promotes certain subject area content over other subject area content. 0 7 7 56 30 4.00 4.08 0.82
7 Students’ scores on high stakes test provide feedback for schools to improve the curriculum. 1 7 16 62 15 4.00 3.82 0.81
8 High stakes testing has caused principals to devote more attention to the school’s curriculum. 1 5 7 60 28 4.00 4.08 0.79

Note. a 1 ( Strongly Disagree ), 2 ( Disagree ), 3 ( Neither Agree nor Disagree ), 4 ( Agree ), and 5 ( Strongly Agree ).

Beliefs about teaching

Principals’ beliefs about teaching consist of 10 items . Principals agreed (median value of 4) with four statements (see Table 2). Principals agreed that (a) high stakes testing motivates teachers to improve the teaching and learning process, (b) students’ scores on a high stakes test provides feedback for teachers to improve their teaching, (c) high stakes testing has increased cooperation among teachers, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the time to teach other subjects’ content. Principals nether agreed nor disagreed (median value of 3) that (a) high stakes testing leads to better teaching, (b) the quality of a teacher’s instruction is directly related to student performance, (c) high stakes testing permits teachers to use the full range of their teaching skills, and (d) high stakes testing reduces the teaching and learning process to a student’s test score.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review, volume 12, number 1 (april 2011). OpenStax CNX. Mar 26, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11285/1.2
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