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Synalpheus regalis: fortress defenders

Sponge-dwelling shrimp are fortress defenders ( [link] ). The risk of predation is not most severe outside of the nest, but rather inside of it from intruders. Thus larger colony members, most of who do not breed, defend the sponge against any intruder impinging on the sponge. The defenders of the colony are large and overtly aggressive, possessing snapping claws to use against intruders, and tend to be older than the rest of the colony. This age related polytheism is a common trait in labor specializing social insects that also express eusociality (Wilson 1971; Oster and Wilson 1978). These large shrimp allocate their energy to protecting the nest, rather than parenting ( [link] ). The attacks of predators against shrimp can lead to wounds and even death. By allocating the fighting to just the male defenders, it is ensured that the reproductive individual will be protected and will survive to reproduce (Robinson 1992). These fortress defenders are also protecting the most valuable resource of the nest, the sponge itself that provides food and nourishment for the juveniles. Since most of the defenders do not breed, the only way to secure their genes in future generations is to protect their juvenile siblings, allowing them to grow to adulthood free from predation.

Examples of eusocial fortress defenders

Synalpheus regalis has been accepted as a eusocial species due to the vast importance division of labor has provided for populations. For all populations, the juvenile is a precious commodity that must be brought to adulthood to ensure the spread of gene copies. With a caste system, S. regalis is capable of doing just this, having a defender caste that ensures the safety of the nest’s juvenile as well as the queen. Other eusocial species have also classified as either fortress defenders or life insurers; with the primary distinction being the importance of the nest as a food source seen in fortress defenders. The eusocial termites also classify as fortress defenders (Thorne 1997). Similar to sponge-dwelling shrimp, nests of termites provide nourishment for juveniles and adults, reducing the need for foraging. Termites are similar to S. regalis due to the presence of a soldier caste to defend the colony against intruders—in both organisms the nest is very important since it provides nourishment, houses juveniles and reproductive individuals, and serves as protection. However unlike S. regalis , in the termite species Zootermopsis angusticollis female soldiers are also present. Normal female pre-soldiers (callow soldiers that will molt into soldiers) have oviducts, a seminal receptacle, and eggs, thus is capable of reproduction. Once the pre-soldier molts into a mature female soldier, the reproductive organs ceases development, making the female infertile (Thorne 1997). Using molecular analysis, all species of termites have been found to differentiate into castes not genetically, but via developmental instructions that allow them to become any one of the castes depending on hormonal stimuli ( [link] ). The first developmental pathway is the sexual line recognized by the presence of wing buds; the second pathway, apterous, leads individuals to become workers (Watson et al. 1985). Further research is necessary in Synalpheus regalis to determine what developmental pathways, or any other mechanism of differentiation, is used in the formation of soldiers versus the reproductive individual.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Mockingbird tales: readings in animal behavior. OpenStax CNX. Jan 12, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11211/1.5
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