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In the last of the century there was growing business prosperity, with particular emphasis on textiles, shoes, cheap china and glass, sugar refineries, breweries, coal and graphite mines and the great Skoda machine shop at Pilsen. Prague University had new vigor with Professor Thomas Masaryk becoming one of the greatest of Czech philosophers and patriots. He later became a member of the Austrian Parliament, promoting the Bohemian cause and in the next century was to become the first president of the Czechoslovakian Republic. In Moravia, there were riots in 1899 with the looting of Jewish and German houses so that troops had to be called out to restore order.


We noted in the last chapter that Napoleon had conquered Switzerland. In 1803 he allowed a satisfactory federal constitution and with Bonaparte's fall, the Confederation was restored. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the perpetual neutrality of that land and this had never been violated to date. After a short civil war in 1847 a new close national union developed and a new federal constitution was written. All tariff barriers between the cantons were removed between 1848 and 1874. The International Red Cross was formed at the Geneva Convention of 1864, chiefly due to the efforts of Jean Henri Dunant, a Swiss banker, who had happened to see a battlefield in northern Italy littered with tens of thousands of wounded soldiers lying unattended on the ground. The Red Cross insignia is the Swiss flag, with colors reversed. (Ref. 8 , 125 )

Western europe


The Napoleonic Wars brought Spain to the edge of ruin. After war with France and then against England, as a French ally, Spain's sea power was destroyed and Napoleon put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1805. In 1812 Joseph, with his Cortes (Congress), abolished the Inquisition and limited the powers of the Catholic Church. Fighting continued, however, in the Peninsular War, with Great Britain entered on the side of the Spanish people and eventually driving out the French. The locals had never accepted Joseph and Napoleon's dominion was already collapsing, anyway, so after the Peninsular War, King Ferdinand VII resumed rule and revoked the new laws regarding the church. Spanish overseas colonies were revolting, however, and the people of Spain blamed the king, so he was taken prisoner and anarchy followed, with various temporary rulers, including Isabella II, who reigned from 1833 to 1868, at first with regents. The contesting of her succession by her uncle, Don Carlos led to the Carlist Wars. In these revolts most of the Basque provinces and much of Catalonia supported Carlos. Civil wars and insurrections followed one after another until 1876, over a year after Isabella's son Alfonso XII had been proclaimed king. The economy remained critical and Spain had industry in only a few small areas. Even in 1829 the trade was only 1/3 of what it had been in 1785. The last great European famine was in Andalusia in 1882. On the death of Alfonso XII, his posthumous son Alfonso XIII reigned during the remainder of the century with his mother as regent. (Ref. 213 , 38 )

Questions & Answers

How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
scanning tunneling microscope
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
How can I make nanorobot?
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
how can I make nanorobot?
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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