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In the last of the century there was growing business prosperity, with particular emphasis on textiles, shoes, cheap china and glass, sugar refineries, breweries, coal and graphite mines and the great Skoda machine shop at Pilsen. Prague University had new vigor with Professor Thomas Masaryk becoming one of the greatest of Czech philosophers and patriots. He later became a member of the Austrian Parliament, promoting the Bohemian cause and in the next century was to become the first president of the Czechoslovakian Republic. In Moravia, there were riots in 1899 with the looting of Jewish and German houses so that troops had to be called out to restore order.

Switzerland

We noted in the last chapter that Napoleon had conquered Switzerland. In 1803 he allowed a satisfactory federal constitution and with Bonaparte's fall, the Confederation was restored. In 1815 the Congress of Vienna guaranteed the perpetual neutrality of that land and this had never been violated to date. After a short civil war in 1847 a new close national union developed and a new federal constitution was written. All tariff barriers between the cantons were removed between 1848 and 1874. The International Red Cross was formed at the Geneva Convention of 1864, chiefly due to the efforts of Jean Henri Dunant, a Swiss banker, who had happened to see a battlefield in northern Italy littered with tens of thousands of wounded soldiers lying unattended on the ground. The Red Cross insignia is the Swiss flag, with colors reversed. (Ref. 8 , 125 )

Western europe

Spain

The Napoleonic Wars brought Spain to the edge of ruin. After war with France and then against England, as a French ally, Spain's sea power was destroyed and Napoleon put his brother Joseph on the Spanish throne in 1805. In 1812 Joseph, with his Cortes (Congress), abolished the Inquisition and limited the powers of the Catholic Church. Fighting continued, however, in the Peninsular War, with Great Britain entered on the side of the Spanish people and eventually driving out the French. The locals had never accepted Joseph and Napoleon's dominion was already collapsing, anyway, so after the Peninsular War, King Ferdinand VII resumed rule and revoked the new laws regarding the church. Spanish overseas colonies were revolting, however, and the people of Spain blamed the king, so he was taken prisoner and anarchy followed, with various temporary rulers, including Isabella II, who reigned from 1833 to 1868, at first with regents. The contesting of her succession by her uncle, Don Carlos led to the Carlist Wars. In these revolts most of the Basque provinces and much of Catalonia supported Carlos. Civil wars and insurrections followed one after another until 1876, over a year after Isabella's son Alfonso XII had been proclaimed king. The economy remained critical and Spain had industry in only a few small areas. Even in 1829 the trade was only 1/3 of what it had been in 1785. The last great European famine was in Andalusia in 1882. On the death of Alfonso XII, his posthumous son Alfonso XIII reigned during the remainder of the century with his mother as regent. (Ref. 213 , 38 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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