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The Reformation was manipulated by Denmark to the great detriment of Norway in that Protestantism was forced on her as a means of subjugation. (Ref. 34 ) Danish language Bibles and hymnals were also forced, doing much to establish a common Dano-Norwegian language. This is still one of the languages of Norway, called "Riksmal", in contrast to the now revived native language "Landsmal". Before Christian IV, the Hansa merchants had established themselves in Bergen and were a parasitic growth on the whole economy. One of the most famous Danish Navy heroes, elevated to nobility under the name of Tordenskjold, was born Peder Wessel, in Trondheim, Norway.

(Continue on page 978)

Sweden (beginning sweden's age of power; the struggle for the baltic)

Sweden, proper, goes 1,000 miles north from its southern tip and has 96,000 lakes, but in this 17th century it had only 1,500,000 people. Iron was its chief export, making more that 1/2 the total, with silver and copper being next. (Ref. 131 ) In about 1625 Flemish techniques of blast furnace construction and metal casting were imported, allowing the casting of excellent iron guns, so that soon Sweden dominated the international cannon market. This boom had been initiated in 1620 when Louis de Geer, a native of Liege, had sent Walloon ironworkers to this Scandinavian country. (Ref. 270 ) The blast furnaces were financed with money from both Holland and England. (Ref. 260 )

The century opened with the youngest son of Gustavus I as first regent and then King Karl (Charles) IX of Sweden. He established Lutheranism as the state church and then because of claims of the Polish Sigismund to the Swedish throne, he invaded Livonia, beginning the long Polish-Swedish Wars. King Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632), "Lion of the North", made Sweden briefly the greatest military power in Europe. Axel Oxenstierna, his chancellor, helped the nation grow in industry, trade and scholarship. Sweden entered the Thirty Years War in 1630 "to save the Protestant cause" in Germany, but in so doing, virtually conquered most of that country. Adolphus went as far as the Danube but then was killed at age 38, while leading a cavalry charge. His daughter Christina at 6 years of age became queen, but she became an eccentric woman and poor ruler, who at 28 years of age pleaded illness and abdicated to go to Rome, where she announced her Catholicism and became a patroness of the arts and the lover of Cardinal Azzolini. Christina was followed on the throne by her cousin Karl (Charles X, Gustavus), son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrucken, who had had military experience in the Thirty Years War under Torstensson and Chancellor Oxenstierna. He had frank expansionist aims and reopened war with Poland, took Riga and transplanted its iron and steel industry to Sweden, laying the foundations of an even stronger industrial basis for his martial policies. (Ref. 131 )

After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 Sweden, at the peak of its imperial power and "Mistress of the North", completely encircled the Gulf of Bosnia and the Gulf of Finland, controlled Finland, Karelia, Ingria, Estonia and Livonia, most of the Baltic Islands and had two large beach-heads on the north German shore. The first of these was at the mouth of the Oder River, with Stettin, Stralsund and Wismar and reaching to within about 30 miles of Berlin and secondly the Duchy of Holstei-n-Gottorp on the west side of the base of the Danish peninsula. Needing money during the Thirty Years War, the Swedes had cut down vast forest areas in Pomerania, with the result that subsequently many of these areas were invaded by sand dunes. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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