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The Reformation was manipulated by Denmark to the great detriment of Norway in that Protestantism was forced on her as a means of subjugation. (Ref. 34 ) Danish language Bibles and hymnals were also forced, doing much to establish a common Dano-Norwegian language. This is still one of the languages of Norway, called "Riksmal", in contrast to the now revived native language "Landsmal". Before Christian IV, the Hansa merchants had established themselves in Bergen and were a parasitic growth on the whole economy. One of the most famous Danish Navy heroes, elevated to nobility under the name of Tordenskjold, was born Peder Wessel, in Trondheim, Norway.

(Continue on page 978)

Sweden (beginning sweden's age of power; the struggle for the baltic)

Sweden, proper, goes 1,000 miles north from its southern tip and has 96,000 lakes, but in this 17th century it had only 1,500,000 people. Iron was its chief export, making more that 1/2 the total, with silver and copper being next. (Ref. 131 ) In about 1625 Flemish techniques of blast furnace construction and metal casting were imported, allowing the casting of excellent iron guns, so that soon Sweden dominated the international cannon market. This boom had been initiated in 1620 when Louis de Geer, a native of Liege, had sent Walloon ironworkers to this Scandinavian country. (Ref. 270 ) The blast furnaces were financed with money from both Holland and England. (Ref. 260 )

The century opened with the youngest son of Gustavus I as first regent and then King Karl (Charles) IX of Sweden. He established Lutheranism as the state church and then because of claims of the Polish Sigismund to the Swedish throne, he invaded Livonia, beginning the long Polish-Swedish Wars. King Gustavus Adolphus (1611-1632), "Lion of the North", made Sweden briefly the greatest military power in Europe. Axel Oxenstierna, his chancellor, helped the nation grow in industry, trade and scholarship. Sweden entered the Thirty Years War in 1630 "to save the Protestant cause" in Germany, but in so doing, virtually conquered most of that country. Adolphus went as far as the Danube but then was killed at age 38, while leading a cavalry charge. His daughter Christina at 6 years of age became queen, but she became an eccentric woman and poor ruler, who at 28 years of age pleaded illness and abdicated to go to Rome, where she announced her Catholicism and became a patroness of the arts and the lover of Cardinal Azzolini. Christina was followed on the throne by her cousin Karl (Charles X, Gustavus), son of John Casimir, count palatine of Zweibrucken, who had had military experience in the Thirty Years War under Torstensson and Chancellor Oxenstierna. He had frank expansionist aims and reopened war with Poland, took Riga and transplanted its iron and steel industry to Sweden, laying the foundations of an even stronger industrial basis for his martial policies. (Ref. 131 )

After the Treaty of Westphalia in 1648 Sweden, at the peak of its imperial power and "Mistress of the North", completely encircled the Gulf of Bosnia and the Gulf of Finland, controlled Finland, Karelia, Ingria, Estonia and Livonia, most of the Baltic Islands and had two large beach-heads on the north German shore. The first of these was at the mouth of the Oder River, with Stettin, Stralsund and Wismar and reaching to within about 30 miles of Berlin and secondly the Duchy of Holstei-n-Gottorp on the west side of the base of the Danish peninsula. Needing money during the Thirty Years War, the Swedes had cut down vast forest areas in Pomerania, with the result that subsequently many of these areas were invaded by sand dunes. (Ref. 260 )

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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