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School District Type.

There are three district types in Illinois: elementary, high school, and preK-12 unit districts. During the 2008-2009 Illinois school year, Illinois State Board of Education reported 378 elementary districts, 100 high school districts, and 390 unit districts with grade levels elementary through high school (Illinois State Board of Education, 2009, p. 3). The school board survey representation reflected these numbers: 46% elementary districts, 12% high school districts, and 41% unit districts.

The format for responses to the perceptions of motivations and challenges included four choices. Given a specific descriptor, respondents were asked to indicate if they perceived this descriptor to be 1) Typical of female board members ; 2) Typical of male board members ; 3) Equally typical of female and male board members ; or 4) Not typical of either female or male board members .

Motivations for Running for School Board.

School board members perceived their motivation in running for the board, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Advocacy for student achievement/accountability (89%); Ensuring taxpayers’ money was well spent (74%); Influencing a district’s educational policies (74%); Fulfill a civic responsibility (73%); Disgruntled with school and school district decisions (41%), Holding an elected office (31%); Advancing self-interest (23%); Developing a political presence (18%).

Challenges: Running for School Board.

Respondents perceived the challenges in running for school board positions, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Criticism from internal and external stakeholders (66%); High level of visibility (57%); Family demands and responsibilities (56%); Complacency of current school board (41%); Lack of financial support (41%); Lack of family support (25%); Lack of self-confidence (21%); Perceived gender bias (13%).

Challenges: Seated on Board.

Respondents perceived the challenges while seated on the board, which were typical of both male and female school board members, included the following in rank order: Increased visibility (80%); Criticism from internal and external stakeholders (77%); Uncertainty about one’s ability to be an effective board member (54%); Personal retribution and repercussions for family members (40%); Lack of support from the current superintendent (27%); Intimidation from other board members (21%); Lack of family support (20%).


Males continue to hold the majority of seats on school boards and the majority of superintendent positions in the state of Illinois; it should be noted that females are gaining ground in these positions. Among the boards in the current study, the majority of female respondents were most likely to be one of two female board members on their school board. The majority of participants were in the 40 to 49 age bracket. Even though a majority of board members have served in their positions less than seven years, it is interesting to note in this particular study, 43% have three years or less of school board experience which has tremendous implications for school board training and board development. Also, it is important that school board trainers understand the characteristics, attitudes, and values of this age group (40 to 49 years) and the implications this has for training and board development. The majority of board members are well-educated, having college and advanced degrees, lending themselves to intelligent decision-making and problem-solving abilities. Illinois has the third largest number of rural and small school districts in the country. The majority of respondents come from rural and small schools.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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