<< Chapter < Page Chapter >> Page >

Supplemental material

I recommend that you also study the other lessons in my extensive collection of online programming tutorials. You will find a consolidated index at www.DickBaldwin.com .

General background information

The gravitational constant

The gravitational constant, G, is a constant that is used in the calculation of the gravitational attraction between objects with mass. The value of G is approximately:

G = 6.67 * 10^(-11) *m^3*kg^(-1)*s^(-2), or

G = 6.67 * 10^(-11) N*(m/kg)^2

According to the law of universal gravitation, the attractive force (F) between two bodies is proportional to the product of their masses (m1 and m2), and inversely proportional to the square of the distance (r) between them:

F = G*m1*m2/r^2

Newton's law of gravitation

Newton's law of gravitation proposes that every small element of matter, m, attracts every other small element of matter, m' with a force that isproportional to the product of the masses and inversely proportional to the square of the distance between them, so that at the small element level,

F = G*m*m'/r^2

As a result, we tend to fall toward the earth unless we are supported by upward forces, such as the floor that we are standing on.

An important simplification

It would be very difficult to deal with the attraction of gravity if we were required to deal with every object (including the earth) in terms of the manysmall elements of mass that make up the object.

Newton simplified that process by proving mathematically that the earth regarded as a sphere attracts abody as if the whole mass of the earth were concentrated at its center.

Almost parallel forces

The attraction of the earth on the elements of our body produces forces on thoseelements that are almost parallel. Those forces lie along lines that all end at a point that is almost 4000 miles beneath the surface of the earth.

At that distance, each pair of force lines forms the sides of a triangle with extremely long sides, an extremely small angle, and an extremely narrow base. Asa practical matter, therefore, we can assume that those forces are parallel insofar as estimating the effectthat the sum of all of those elemental forces have on our bodies.

The center of gravity C.G.

It can be proved that:

The resultant of the weights of all the elements of a rigid body passes through a certain fixed point commonly called its center of gravity, C.G., regardlessof the orientation of that body relative to the earth.

For purposes of computations involving statics, the mass of a rigid body may be considered as if concentrated at it C.G., and its weight may be considered to centerat this same point.

(Recall that the weight of an object is the force required to cause the mass of that object to fall toward the center of the earth with an acceleration ofapproximately 32.2 ft/s^2 or 9.81 m/s^2.)

A plumb-bob or plummet

A plumb-bob or a plummet is a weight, usually with a pointed tip on the bottom, that is suspended from a string and used as a vertical reference line, or plumb-line.

Questions & Answers

What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
what's the easiest and fastest way to the synthesize AgNP?
Damian Reply
China
Cied
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
Privacy Information Security Software Version 1.1a
Good
Got questions? Join the online conversation and get instant answers!
Jobilize.com Reply

Get the best Algebra and trigonometry course in your pocket!





Source:  OpenStax, Accessible physics concepts for blind students. OpenStax CNX. Oct 02, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11294/1.36
Google Play and the Google Play logo are trademarks of Google Inc.

Notification Switch

Would you like to follow the 'Accessible physics concepts for blind students' conversation and receive update notifications?

Ask