# 0.6 Solid state and superconductors  (Page 4/9)

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## Synthesis of solid state materials

There exist many synthetic methods to make crystalline solids. Traditional solid state chemical reactions are often slow and require high temperatures and long periods of time for reactants to form the desire compound. They also require that reactants are mixed in the solid state by grinding two solids together. In this manner the mixture formed is heterogeneous (i.e. not in the same phase), and high temperatures are required to increase the mobility of the ions that are being formed into the new solid binary phase. Another approach to get solid state binary structures is using a precursor material such as a metal carbonate, that upon decomposition at high temperatures loses gaseous ${\text{CO}}_{2}$ resulting in very fine particles of the corresponding metal oxide (e.g., ${\text{BaCO}}_{3\left(s\right)}\to {\text{BaO}}_{\left(s\right)}+{\text{CO}}_{2\left(g\right)}$ ).

## X-ray crystallography

To determine the atomic or molecular structure of a crystal diffraction of X-rays is used. It was observed that visible light can be diffracted by the use of optical grids, because these are arranged in a regular manner. Energy sources such as X-rays have such small wavelengths that only“grids”the size of atoms will be able to diffract X-rays. As mentioned before a crystal has regular molecular array, and therefore it is possible, to use X-ray diffraction to determine the location of the atoms in crystal lattice. When such an experiment is carried out we say that we have determined the crystal structure of the substance. The study of crystal structures is known as crystallography and it is one of the most powerful techniques used today to characterize new compounds. You will discuss the principles behind X-ray diffraction in the lecture part of this course.

## Superconductors

A superconductor is an element, or compound that will conduct electricity without resistance when it is below a certain temperature. Without resistance the electrical current will flow continuously in a closed loop as long as the material is kept below an specific temperature. Since the electrical resistance is zero, supercurrents are generated in the material to exclude the magnetic fields from a magnet brought near it. The currents which cancel the external field produce magnetic poles opposite to the poles of the permanent magnet, repelling them to provide the lift to levitate the magnet . In some countries (including USA) this magnet levitation has been used for transporation. Specifically trains can take advantage of this levitation to virtually eliminate friction between the vehicle and the tracks. A train levitated over a superconductor can attain speeds over 300 mph!

## Solid state model kits

In this experiment we will use the Institute for Chemical Education (ICE) Solid-State Model Kits which are designed for creating a variety of common and important solid state structures. Please be careful with these materials as they are quite expensive. There is a list of kit components on the inside of the lid of each box. Please make sure that you have all the listed pieces and that these are in their proper locations when you finish using the kit.

Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
what about nanotechnology for water purification
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
what is the stm
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
what is a peer
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
what is Nano technology ?
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
why?
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
hi
Loga
what does nano mean?
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
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