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The instructors in this study believed that the social aspect of learning was very important. Miller used icebreaker exercises at the beginning of the semester with her class to help the students to get to know each other. Even though Ed was teaching the theories course online, he felt it was not the best way to teach it. He did not like the fact that he was unable to meet the students in person. He and Lyle felt that totally online classes did not allow for the kind of communication that could happen in a face-to-face discussion. He felt there was value in meeting together as a class and discussing things. However, Lyle believed that the online text, the videos and the research articles included in the Online Day served as important resources as an adjunct to the classroom experience. Lyle’s point is supported by educational research which finds a blended approach to learning that incorporates social constructivism and information-processing psychology enhances student learning ( Alonzo, Lopez, Manrique&Vines, 2005 ).

Career stage and age

The most significant determinant of technology integration for the participants in this study was age and stage of life. An unexpected correlation was that the youngest instructors did not embrace technology in their teaching to the degree that some of the oldest did. To give a clear idea of the phases of career the instructors fell into, Donald Super’s career theory was employed.

Super’s career ladder

Donald Super is one of the most notable contributors to the field of career development, having spent half a century creating a theory that departed from traditional trait-factor theories, and instead was based on life stages ( Anderson&Vandehey, 2006 ). Super’s Career Ladder is drawn as a series of steps that represent the different stages of psychological development of a careerist ( Super, Savickas,&Super, 1996 ). In this model, each stage is completed before moving on to the next. A career is seen as developing over a lifetime, and may consist of a number of different jobs overtime. Super’s diagram shows the progress of psychological development over a person’s lifetime. Starting with Birth, the categories progress through Growth (ages 4-11), Exploration (ages 18-30), Establishment (ages 30-45), Maintenance (ages 45-65), Decline (ages 65-75), and Death (ages 75 and over). Because this study focuses on the instructors’ working years, the early life stages are not dealt with. Starting with Establishment and ending with Decline , the instructors’ current position on Super’s Ladder will be explored.

There is a stair shaped diagram on the left side of this image. Progressing from the bottom of the step to the top of the steps there are dashed horizontal lines. Each one of the line has a number on the left of the step figure to a vertical line on the left.
Super’s Career Ladder (Super, Savickas,&Super, 1996) with instructors’ names inserted at the appropriate developmental stage of their careers.

Establishment stage

The instructors at Super’s Establishment stage of their teaching careers were Laura, Lyle, Ken, and Nancy. Laura was the least experienced instructor of the group. Although she was completing her first year as a full-time instructor, she was already fully engaged in professional development activities which would contribute toward her tenure requirements. Her outreach work focused on getting her students involved in professional organizations and supporting them in presenting papers at conferences. At the prompting of her supervisor, she adopted the Online Day course materials. However, she did not become very familiar with the online resources. She had taught the theories course before using a different textbook, and expressed frustration with the burden of learning not just a new textbook, but a whole new way of teaching. She expressed mixed feelings about whether to stick with the Day textbook or to go back to another text with which she was more familiar. Laura represented the Trial-committed phase of the Establishment Stage . She felt compelled to use the Online Day materials, but her workload and tenure-related activities held her back.

Questions & Answers

explain and give four Example hyperbolic function
Lukman Reply
The denominator of a certain fraction is 9 more than the numerator. If 6 is added to both terms of the fraction, the value of the fraction becomes 2/3. Find the original fraction. 2. The sum of the least and greatest of 3 consecutive integers is 60. What are the valu
SABAL Reply
1. x + 6 2 -------------- = _ x + 9 + 6 3 x + 6 3 ----------- x -- (cross multiply) x + 15 2 3(x + 6) = 2(x + 15) 3x + 18 = 2x + 30 (-2x from both) x + 18 = 30 (-18 from both) x = 12 Test: 12 + 6 18 2 -------------- = --- = --- 12 + 9 + 6 27 3
Pawel
2. (x) + (x + 2) = 60 2x + 2 = 60 2x = 58 x = 29 29, 30, & 31
Pawel
ok
Ifeanyi
on number 2 question How did you got 2x +2
Ifeanyi
combine like terms. x + x + 2 is same as 2x + 2
Pawel
Mark and Don are planning to sell each of their marble collections at a garage sale. If Don has 1 more than 3 times the number of marbles Mark has, how many does each boy have to sell if the total number of marbles is 113?
mariel Reply
Mark = x,. Don = 3x + 1 x + 3x + 1 = 113 4x = 112, x = 28 Mark = 28, Don = 85, 28 + 85 = 113
Pawel
how do I set up the problem?
Harshika Reply
what is a solution set?
Harshika
find the subring of gaussian integers?
Rofiqul
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Shirley Reply
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Abdullahi
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Mark
I need quadratic equation link to Alpa Beta
Abdullahi Reply
find the value of 2x=32
Felix Reply
divide by 2 on each side of the equal sign to solve for x
corri
X=16
Michael
Want to review on complex number 1.What are complex number 2.How to solve complex number problems.
Beyan
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Mark
use the y -intercept and slope to sketch the graph of the equation y=6x
Only Reply
how do we prove the quadratic formular
Seidu Reply
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Darius
hello, if you have a question about Algebra 2. I may be able to help. I am an Algebra 2 Teacher
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Opoku
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Tric Reply
4
Trista
x-2y+3z=-3 2x-y+z=7 -x+3y-z=6
Sidiki Reply
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Mark
Solve for the first variable in one of the equations, then substitute the result into the other equation. Point For: (6111,4111,−411)(6111,4111,-411) Equation Form: x=6111,y=4111,z=−411x=6111,y=4111,z=-411
Brenna
(61/11,41/11,−4/11)
Brenna
x=61/11 y=41/11 z=−4/11 x=61/11 y=41/11 z=-4/11
Brenna
Need help solving this problem (2/7)^-2
Simone Reply
x+2y-z=7
Sidiki
what is the coefficient of -4×
Mehri Reply
-1
Shedrak
the operation * is x * y =x + y/ 1+(x × y) show if the operation is commutative if x × y is not equal to -1
Alfred Reply
A soccer field is a rectangle 130 meters wide and 110 meters long. The coach asks players to run from one corner to the other corner diagonally across. What is that distance, to the nearest tenths place.
Kimberly Reply
Jeannette has $5 and $10 bills in her wallet. The number of fives is three more than six times the number of tens. Let t represent the number of tens. Write an expression for the number of fives.
August Reply
What is the expressiin for seven less than four times the number of nickels
Leonardo Reply
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how do you translate this in Algebraic Expressions
linda Reply
why surface tension is zero at critical temperature
Shanjida
I think if critical temperature denote high temperature then a liquid stats boils that time the water stats to evaporate so some moles of h2o to up and due to high temp the bonding break they have low density so it can be a reason
s.
Need to simplify the expresin. 3/7 (x+y)-1/7 (x-1)=
Crystal Reply
. After 3 months on a diet, Lisa had lost 12% of her original weight. She lost 21 pounds. What was Lisa's original weight?
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Source:  OpenStax, Faculty use of courseware to teach counseling theories. OpenStax CNX. Oct 14, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11130/1.1
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