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Noise reduction capacity

It has been shown that the thresholding of wavelet coefficients has near optimal noise reduction property for many classes of signals [link] . The thresholding scheme used in the approximation in the proposed FAFT algorithm is exactly the hard thresholding schemeused to denoise the data. Soft thresholding can also be easily embedded in the FAFT. Thus the proposed algorithm also reduces the noise whiledoing approximation. If we need to compute the DFT of noisy signals, the proposed algorithm not only can reduce the numerical complexity but alsocan produce cleaner results.

Summary

In the past, the FFT has been used to calculate the DWT [link] , [link] , [link] , which leads to an efficient algorithm when filters are infinite impulse response (IIR). Inthis chapter, we did just the opposite – using DWT to calculate FFT. We have shown that when no intermediate coefficients are dropped and noapproximations are made, the proposed algorithm computes the exact result, and its computational complexity is on the same order of the FFT; i.e., O ( N log 2 N ) . The advantage of our algorithm is two fold. From the input data side, the signals are made sparse by the wavelet transform, thusapproximation can be made to speed up the algorithm by dropping the insignificant data. From the transform side, since the twiddle factors of the new algorithm have decreasingmagnitudes, approximation can be made to speed up the algorithm by pruning the section of the algorithm which corresponds to the insignificant twiddle factors. Since wavelets are an unconditionalbasis for many classes of signals [link] , [link] , [link] , the algorithm is very efficient and has built-in denoising capacity.An alternative approach has been developed by Shentov, Mitra, Heute, and Hossen [link] , [link] using subband filter banks.

Nonlinear filtering or denoising with the dwt

Wavelets became known to most engineers and scientists with the publication of Daubechies' important paper [link] in 1988. Indeed, the work of Daubechies [link] , Mallat [link] , [link] , [link] , Meyer [link] , [link] , and others produced beautiful and interesting structures, but many engineers and applied scientist felt they had a“solution looking for a problem." With the recent work of Donoho and Johnstone together with ideas from Coifman, Beylkin and others, the fieldis moving into a second phase with a better understanding of why wavelets work. This new understanding combined with nonlinear processing not only solves currently important problems, but gives the potential offormulating and solving completely new problems. We now have a coherence of approach and a theoretical basis for the success of our methods thatshould be extraordinarily productive over the next several years. Some of the Donoho and Johnstone references are [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] and related ones are [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] . Ideas from Coifman are in [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] , [link] .

These methods are based on taking the discrete wavelet transform (DWT) of a signal, passing this transform through a threshold, which removes thecoefficients below a certain value, then taking the inverse DWT, as illustrated in [link] . They are able to remove noise and achieve high compression ratios because of the “concentrating" ability ofthe wavelet transform. If a signal has its energy concentrated in a small number of wavelet dimensions, its coefficients will be relatively largecompared to any other signal or noise that has its energy spread over a large number of coefficients. This means that thresholding or shrinkingthe wavelet transform will remove the low amplitude noise or undesired signal in the wavelet domain, and an inverse wavelet transform will thenretrieve the desired signal with little loss of detail. In traditional Fourier-based signal processing, we arrange our signals such that thesignals and any noise overlap as little as possible in the frequency domain and linear time-invariant filtering will approximately separatethem. Where their Fourier spectra overlap, they cannot be separated. Using linear wavelet or other time-frequency or time-scale methods, onecan try to choose basis systems such that in that coordinate system, the signals overlap as little as possible, and separation is possible.

Questions & Answers

are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Wavelets and wavelet transforms. OpenStax CNX. Aug 06, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11454/1.6
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