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The 1950s had many authors criticizing and questioning education with books such as The Affluent Society by Kenneth Gailbraith, Educational Wastelands by Arthur Bester, Quackery in the Public Schools by Albert Lynd, The Conflict in Education by Robert Hutchins, Education and Freedom by Admiral Hyman Rickover, and Why Johnny Can’t Read by Rudolf Flesh ( (External Link) ). It was during the 1950s when “Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama and Dr. Jonas Salk developed vaccine for polio” ( (External Link) ).

The 1960s found many new acts that related to education. Project Head Start was initiated to help low income students get an early start for academic success. Title I was also established to help low income students. It was during this era that Jerome Bruner wrote Toward a Theory of Instruction and Herbert Kohl wrote The Open Classroom. The National Association (NAEP) began national assessments in reading, mathematics, science, writing, U. S. History, Civics, Geography in grades 4, 8, and 12 with representation of states and students. James S. Coleman, commissioned by the U. S. government, published the Equality of Educational Opportunity in 1966 which led to integration and busing. President Kennedy also started the Peace Corps during this era. Forty-one percent of the population completed four years of high school (Abstract of the United States). It was also during this decade that Madalyn Murray O’Hare challenged the use of the Bible in the schools and won.

During the 1970s, President Carter established the Department of Education. Some of the authors that guided the thoughts of education were Thomas A. Harris’ book, I’m OK, You’re OK, Charles E. Silverman’s book, Crisis in the Classroom: The Remaking of American Education and Newsweeks’ December 8, 1975 article, “Why Johnny Can’t Write”. The Vietnam War and Watergate dominated the political climate of our nation.

During the 1980s education saw Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say No” campaign against drugs (kclibary.lonestart.edu/decade80.html). Ed Hirsch, Jr. published Cultural Literacy with an emphasis on the basic skills for school students. Madeline Hunter also published Mastery Teaching which guided the lesson plans for many teachers.

The 1990s saw the Gulf War and the Columbine High School shootings. Eighty three percent of the population completed four years of high school (kc.library.lonestar.edu/decade90.html).

The 2000s saw an attack on our World Trade Center killing almost 3,000 people. Other major disasters were hurricanes and the explosion of the Columbia space shuttle. This decade also saw major advances for minorities as Nancy Pelosi became the first woman Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and Barack Obama became the first African American President of the United States.


Comer (1997) stated, “A democracy must develop sound and growing economy, sound community and family functioning” (p.10). The connection between educational reforms and legislative acts with presidential inaugural address was made showing that most of the inaugural addresses had limited reference to education. Most of the education eras did have specific legislative acts and these acts did guide educational reforms.

Questions & Answers

what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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