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The 1950s had many authors criticizing and questioning education with books such as The Affluent Society by Kenneth Gailbraith, Educational Wastelands by Arthur Bester, Quackery in the Public Schools by Albert Lynd, The Conflict in Education by Robert Hutchins, Education and Freedom by Admiral Hyman Rickover, and Why Johnny Can’t Read by Rudolf Flesh ( (External Link) ). It was during the 1950s when “Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat on a public bus in Montgomery, Alabama and Dr. Jonas Salk developed vaccine for polio” ( (External Link) ).

The 1960s found many new acts that related to education. Project Head Start was initiated to help low income students get an early start for academic success. Title I was also established to help low income students. It was during this era that Jerome Bruner wrote Toward a Theory of Instruction and Herbert Kohl wrote The Open Classroom. The National Association (NAEP) began national assessments in reading, mathematics, science, writing, U. S. History, Civics, Geography in grades 4, 8, and 12 with representation of states and students. James S. Coleman, commissioned by the U. S. government, published the Equality of Educational Opportunity in 1966 which led to integration and busing. President Kennedy also started the Peace Corps during this era. Forty-one percent of the population completed four years of high school (Abstract of the United States). It was also during this decade that Madalyn Murray O’Hare challenged the use of the Bible in the schools and won.

During the 1970s, President Carter established the Department of Education. Some of the authors that guided the thoughts of education were Thomas A. Harris’ book, I’m OK, You’re OK, Charles E. Silverman’s book, Crisis in the Classroom: The Remaking of American Education and Newsweeks’ December 8, 1975 article, “Why Johnny Can’t Write”. The Vietnam War and Watergate dominated the political climate of our nation.

During the 1980s education saw Nancy Reagan’s “Just Say No” campaign against drugs (kclibary.lonestart.edu/decade80.html). Ed Hirsch, Jr. published Cultural Literacy with an emphasis on the basic skills for school students. Madeline Hunter also published Mastery Teaching which guided the lesson plans for many teachers.

The 1990s saw the Gulf War and the Columbine High School shootings. Eighty three percent of the population completed four years of high school (kc.library.lonestar.edu/decade90.html).

The 2000s saw an attack on our World Trade Center killing almost 3,000 people. Other major disasters were hurricanes and the explosion of the Columbia space shuttle. This decade also saw major advances for minorities as Nancy Pelosi became the first woman Speaker of the U.S. House of Representatives and Barack Obama became the first African American President of the United States.


Comer (1997) stated, “A democracy must develop sound and growing economy, sound community and family functioning” (p.10). The connection between educational reforms and legislative acts with presidential inaugural address was made showing that most of the inaugural addresses had limited reference to education. Most of the education eras did have specific legislative acts and these acts did guide educational reforms.

Questions & Answers

what is economic
Charles Reply
what are the type of economic
macroeconomics,microeconomics,positive economics and negative economics
what are the factors of production
process of production
Basically factors of production are four (4) namely: 1. Entrepreneur 2. Capital 3. Labour and; 4. Land but there has been a new argument to include an addition one to the the numbers to 5 which is "Technology"
what is land as a factor of production
what is Economic
economics is how individuals bussiness and governments make the best decisions to get what they want and how these choices interact in the market
Economics as a social science, which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scarce means, which have alternative uses.
how will a country's population be equal to it's labour force
Hope Reply
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Obeng Reply
What is Economic
Governor Reply
Economics is the social science that deals with the unlimited human wants in the face of scarce (limited in supply) resources.
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Gift Reply
marker is the interaction of buying and selling
market refers to the interaction of the processes of buying and selling of commodities between the buyer and the seller.
market is a place where two parties gather to facilitate exchange of goods and services.
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how do on know that marketing is going on
what is consumption
Using revenue
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What are the marmet function
Odirile Reply
price elasticity of demand is the degree of responsiveness of a quantity demanded to the change in price of the commodity in question.
Gladys Reply
What does elasticity mean
Elasticity means change in demand with the change in price. It is elastic if the demand changes with the price change whereas it is inelastic if the demand is not affected due to change in price
I have a question
what is the importance of learning economics?
Thelma Reply
it helps to make the correct choice
it helps firm to produce products that will bring more profit
the difference between needs and wants
londiwe Reply
needs are things that we basically can't live without wants are just luxury things
needs are things without them we can't live but want are things without we can live
what is education
it's a process in which we give or receiving methodical instructions
what is mixed economy
what is a deadweight loss? how monopoly creates a deadweight loss?
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When you make a Scedule of the demand you made
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What is macroeconomics
Kauna Reply
It's one of the two branches of Economics that deal with the aggregate economy.
it's about inflation, occupation, gdp and so on
What is differences between Microeconomics and Macroeconomic?
microeconomics focuses on the action of individual agents in the economy such as businesses, workers and household. while macroeconomics looks at the economy as a whole. it focuses on broad issues in the economy such as government deficit, economy growth, levels of exports and imports, and
inflationary increase in prices
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Source:  OpenStax, Education leadership review special issue: portland conference, volume 12, number 3 (october 2011). OpenStax CNX. Oct 17, 2011 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col11362/1.5
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