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Similar triangles

Two triangles are called similar if it is possible to proportionally shrink or stretch one of them to a triangle congruent to the other. Congruent triangles are similar triangles, but similar triangles are only congruent if they are the same size to begin with.

Description Diagram
If all three pairs of corresponding angles of two triangles are equal, then the triangles are similar.
If all pairs of corresponding sides of two triangles are in proportion, then the triangles are similar.
x p = y q = z r

The theorem of pythagoras

If ABC is right-angled ( B ^ = 90 ) then b 2 = a 2 + c 2
Converse: If b 2 = a 2 + c 2 , then ABC is right-angled ( B ^ = 90 ).

In the following figure, determine if the two triangles are congruent, then use the result to help you find the unknown letters.

  1. D E ˆ C = B A ˆ C = 55 ° (angles in a triangle add up to 180 ° ).

    A B ˆ C = C D ˆ E = 90 ° (given)

    DE = AB = 3 (given)

    Δ ABC Δ CDE
  2. We use Pythagoras to find x:

    CE 2 = DE 2 + DC 2 5 2 = 3 2 + x 2 x 2 = 16 x = 4

    y = 35 ° (angles in a triangle)

    z = 5 (congruent triangles, AC = CE )

Triangles

  1. Calculate the unknown variables in each of the following figures. All lengths are in mm.
  2. State whether or not the following pairs of triangles are congruent or not. Give reasons for your answers. If there is not enough information to make adescision, say why.

Quadrilaterals

A quadrilateral is a four sided figure. There are some special quadrilaterals (trapezium, parallelogram, kite, rhombus, square, rectangle) which you will learn about in Geometry .

Other polygons

There are many other polygons, some of which are given in the table below.

Table of some polygons and their number of sides.
Sides Name
5 pentagon
6 hexagon
7 heptagon
8 octagon
10 decagon
15 pentadecagon
Examples of other polygons.

Angles of regular polygons

Polygons need not have all sides the same. When they do, they are called regular polygons. You can calculate the size of the interior angle of a regular polygon by using:

A ^ = n - 2 n × 180

where n is the number of sides and A ^ is any angle.

Find the size of the interior angles of a regular octagon.

  1. An octagon has 8 sides.
  2. A ^ = n - 2 n × 180 A ^ = 8 - 2 8 × 180 A ^ = 6 2 × 180 A ^ = 135

Summary

  • Make sure you know what the following terms mean: quadrilaterals, vertices, sides, angles, parallel lines, perpendicular lines,diagonals, bisectors and transversals.
  • The properties of triangles has been covered.
  • Congruency and similarity of triangles
  • Angles can be classified as acute, right, obtuse, straight, reflex or revolution
  • Theorem of Pythagoras which is used to calculate the lengths of sides of a right-angled triangle
  • Angles:
    • Acute angle: An angle 0 and 90
    • Right angle: An angle measuring 90
    • Obtuse angle: An angle 90 and 180
    • Straight angle: An angle measuring 180
    • Reflex angle: An angle 180 and 360
    • Revolution: An angle measuring 360
  • There are several properties of angles and some special names for these
  • There are four types of triangles: Equilateral, isoceles, right-angled and scalene
  • The angles in a triangle add up to 180

Exercises

  1. Find all the pairs of parallel lines in the following figures, giving reasons in each case.
  2. Find angles a , b , c and d in each case, giving reasons.
  3. Say which of the following pairs of triangles are congruent with reasons.
  4. Identify the types of angles shown below (e.g. acute/obtuse etc):
  5. Calculate the size of the third angle (x) in each of the diagrams below:
  6. Name each of the shapes/polygons, state how many sides each has and whether it is regular (equiangular and equilateral) or not:
  7. Assess whether the following statements are true or false. If the statement is false, explain why:
    1. An angle is formed when two straight lines meet at a point.
    2. The smallest angle that can be drawn is 5°.
    3. An angle of 90° is called a square angle.
    4. Two angles whose sum is 180° are called supplementary angles.
    5. Two parallel lines will never intersect.
    6. A regular polygon has equal angles but not equal sides.
    7. An isoceles triangle has three equal sides.
    8. If three sides of a triangle are equal in length to the same sides of another triangle, then the two triangles are incongruent.
    9. If three pairs of corresponding angles in two triangles are equal, then the triangles are similar.
  8. Name the type of angle (e.g. acute/obtuse etc) based on it's size:
    1. 30°
    2. 47°
    3. 90°
    4. 91°
    5. 191°
    6. 360°
    7. 180°
  9. Using Pythagoras' theorem for right-angled triangles, calculate the length of x:

Challenge problem

  1. Using the figure below, show that the sum of the three angles in a triangle is 180 . Line D E is parallel to B C .

Questions & Answers

what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
How can I make nanorobot?
Lily
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
how can I make nanorobot?
Lily
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Contemporary math applications. OpenStax CNX. Dec 15, 2014 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11559/1.6
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