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Potential energy versus stretch or compression

There is an equation for springs that relates the amount of elastic potential energy to the amount of stretch (or compression) and the spring constant. The equation is

PEs = 0.5 * k * x^2

where

  • PEs represents the elastic potential energy stored in the spring
  • k is the spring constant for the material from which the spring is made
  • x is the amount of compression or stretch relative to the equilibrium state.

Summary

Gravitational potential energy can be stored in an object by moving it further away from the center of the earth. As a practical matter, this usuallymeans moving it to a higher position relative to the ground, the floor, or a tabletop.

Elastic potential energy can be stored in an object by deforming it within its elastic limit. Usually, but not always, this involves stretching orcompressing the object, but it could also mean twisting it or deforming it in some other way. If the deformation doesn't exceed the elastic limit of theobject, it will return to its original shape when the load is removed.

Some materials, such as the spring material in a fisherman's scale, can sustain considerable deformation before reaching the elastic limit. Othermaterials, such as toasted bread, not only reach their elastic limit, but also reach their structural limit and break at the slightest amount of deformation.

Other materials, such as fresh bread and modeling clay have a low elastic limit but a relatively high structural limit. In other words, they doesn'treturn to their original shape when deformed, but they also don't easily break when deformed.

Sample Calculations

The rock and the tree

You pick a flat rock with a 10kg mass off the ground and balance it on a tree limb 2 meters above the ground.

What was the gravitational potential energy of the rock before your arrival and what change in gravitational potential energy did you impart to the rock byyour actions?

Answer:

Assuming that the rock was flat and the ground was flat and there was essentially no chance the the rock could roll downhill, the gravitationalpotential energy of the rock before you picked it up was zero.

Using the Google calculator to do the arithmetic and handle the units, after you balanced the rock on the tree limb, the potential energy was:

(10 kg) * (9.8 (m / (s^2))) * (2 m) = 196 joules

Therefore, the change in gravitational potential energy was 196 joules.

A crate and a ramp

You push a 100 kg mass up a 5 meter-long ramp and onto a platform at the upper end of the ramp. The ramp makes an angle of 36.9 degrees relative to theground on which it is setting.

What change in gravitational potential energy did you impart to the crate?

Answer:

First compute the height of the platform at the upper end of the ramp.

height = 5 * sin(36.9 degrees) = 3m

Now compute the change in gravitational potential energy.

(100 kg) * (9.8 (m / (s^2))) * (3 m) = 2940 joules

All that matters insofar as the change in gravitational potential energy is concerned is that the crate was lifted 3 meters higher than its initial position.How that lift was accomplished doesn't matter. It could be accomplished with a ramp, a pulley, or with brute strength and the change in gravitational potential energy would be the same.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
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Source:  OpenStax, Accessible physics concepts for blind students. OpenStax CNX. Oct 02, 2015 Download for free at https://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11294/1.36
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