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The large intestine

The large intestine    is the terminal part of the alimentary canal. The primary function of this organ is to finish absorption of nutrients and water, synthesize certain vitamins, form feces, and eliminate feces from the body.

Structure

The large intestine runs from the appendix to the anus. It frames the small intestine on three sides. Despite its being about one-half as long as the small intestine, it is called large because it is more than twice the diameter of the small intestine, about 3 inches. The large intestine is subdivided into four main regions: the cecum, the colon, the rectum, and the anus. The ileocecal valve, located at the opening between the ileum and the large intestine, controls the flow of chyme from the small intestine to the large intestine.

Subdivisions

Cecum

The first part of the large intestine is the cecum    , a sac-like structure that is suspended inferior to the ileocecal valve. It is about 2.4 inches long, receives the contents of the ileum, and continues the absorption of water and salts. The appendix    is a winding tube that attaches to the cecum. Although the 3-inch long appendix contains lymphoid tissue, suggesting an immune function, this organ is generally considered vestigial (no longer useful). However, at least one recent report suggests a survival advantage provided by the appendix: In illness, the appendix may serve as a bacterial reservoir to repopulate the bacteria after the illness.

Colon

The cecum blends seamlessly with the colon    . Upon entering the colon, the food residue first travels up the ascending colon    on the right side of the abdomen. At the inferior surface of the liver, the colon bends to form the right colic flexure    (hepatic flexure) and becomes the transverse colon    . Food residue passing through the transverse colon travels across to the left side of the abdomen, where the colon angles sharply immediately inferior to the spleen, at the left colic flexure    (splenic flexure). From there, food residue passes through the descending colon    , which runs down the left side of the abdominal wall. After entering the pelvis it becomes the s-shaped sigmoid colon    .

Large intestine

This image shows the large intestine; the major parts of the large intestine are labeled.
The large intestine includes the cecum, colon, and rectum.

Rectum and anal canal

Food residue leaving the sigmoid colon enters the rectum    in the pelvis. The final 8 inches of the alimentary canal, the rectum extends to the sacrum and coccyx. The rectum stores formed feces until the body is ready to expel the waste. Finally, food residue reaches the last part of the large intestine, the anal canal    which opens to the exterior of the body at the anus. The anal canal includes two sphincters. The internal anal sphincter    is made of smooth muscle, and its contractions are involuntary. The external anal sphincter    is made of skeletal muscle, which is under voluntary control. Except when defecating, both usually remain closed.

Histology

There are several notable differences between the walls of the large and small intestines ( [link] ). For example, few enzyme-secreting cells are found in the wall of the large intestine, and there are no circular folds or villi. There is an increased number of mucus producing goblet cells . These goblet cells secrete mucus that eases the movement of feces and protects the intestine.

Questions & Answers

where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Digestive system. OpenStax CNX. Feb 23, 2015 Download for free at http://legacy.cnx.org/content/col11761/1.1
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