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Africa is a tremendous continent, measuring nearly 5,000 miles from north to south and the same from the western edge at 20° north latitude to the eastern "horn". It comprises over 20% of the earth's land surface. Throughout the manuscript we shall discuss Africa under the subdivisions listed below.

Northeast africa

This area includes present day Egypt, Sudan, Ethiopia and Somalia. It has about 2,000,000 square miles and is a region where Hamitic and Semitic Caucasoids have met and merged with Negroid stock. Many of the Negroids seem different than other black Africans and some authorities believe them to be a separate race, as for example – the Masai. (Ref. 83 ). In ancient times part of Ethiopia (Abyssinia) was known as Axum, while portions of the Sudan have been known as Kush and Nubia. The Nile River runs through all of these countries with the exception of Somalia.

North central and northwest

This area includes present day Libya, Tunisia, Algeria, Morocco and a large part of the Sahara Desert. Overall there are nearly 3,000,000 square miles and the majority of the present population is descendant from the original inhabitants, as no invader ever brought many individuals to the area. Even the great Arab waves of the 7th and 8th centuries probably involved less than 200,000 people. The Berbers are a Caucasoid type, but with much physical variation from tribe to tribe. They inhabit most of the coastal region, much of the mountainous country and the oases. The basic population of the Sahara proper, particularly its more southern portions, was and is today basically Negroid, some native and some descended from slaves. (Ref. 83 ).

Sub-saharan africa

This area extends from far west Africa across the Sudanic plain as far east as the Lake Chad environs, then down to the equatorial district as well as central, east and south Africa and the major islands. This very large spread of land has many and varied peoples and cultures, but historical material is still relatively meager for most of it and from the standpoint of manuscript space, it seems best to consider it under one section.


    Choose different region

  • America
  • Central and Northern Asia
  • Europe
  • The Far East
  • The Indian Subcontinent
  • The Near East
  • Pacific

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
what school?
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
sciencedirect big data base
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
characteristics of micro business
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
is Bucky paper clear?
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
for screen printed electrodes ?
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
or in general
in general
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, A comprehensive outline of world history. OpenStax CNX. Nov 30, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10595/1.3
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