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System software is the collection of programs that must be available to any computer system for it to operate.

The most important system software is the operating system . Examples of some well-known operating systems include MS-DOS, UNIX, and MS WINDOWS. Many operating systems allow user to run multiple programs. Such operating systems are called multitasking systems .

Beside operating systems, language translators are also system softwares.

High-level programming languages

Because of the difficulty of working with low-level languages, high-level languages were developed to make it easier to write computer programs. High level programming languages create computer programs using instructions that are much easier to understand than machine or assembly language code because you can use words that more clearly describe the task being performed. Examples of high-level languages include FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++ and JAVA.

C and C++ are two separate, but related programming languages. In the 1970s, at Bell Laboratories, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan designed the C programming language. In 1985, at Bell Laboratories, Bjarne Stroutrup created C++ based on the C language. C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities.

What is syntax?

A programming language’s syntax is the set of rules for writing grammatically correct language statements. In practice this means a C statement with correct syntax has a proper form specified for the compiler. As such, the compiler accepts the statement and does not generate an error message.

The c programming language

C was used exclusively on UNIX and on mini-computers. During the 1980s, C compilers were written for other platforms, including PCs.

To provide a level of standardization for C language, in 1989, ANSI created a standard version of C that is called ANSI C.

One main benefit of the C language is that it is much closer to assembly language other than other types of high-level programming languages.

The programs written in C often run much faster and more efficiently than programs written in other types of high-level programming language.

The c++ programming language

C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities. C++ is a popular programming language for writing graphical programs that run on Windows and Macintosh.

The standardized version of C++ is commonly referred to as ANSI C++.

The ANSI C and ANSI C++ standards define how C/C++ code can be written.

The ANSI standards also define run-time libraries , which contains useful functions, variables, constants, and other programming items that you can add to your programs.

The ANSI C++ run-time library is also called the Standard Template Library or Standard C++ Library.

Structured programming and object oriented programming

During the 1960s, many large software development effects encountered severe difficulties. Software schedules were typically late, costs greatly exceeded budgets and finished products were unreliable. People began to realize that software development was a far more complex activity than they had imagined. Research activity in the 1960s resulted in the evolution of structured programming – a discipline approach to writing programs that are clearer than unstructured programs, easier to test and debug and easier to modify. Chapter 5 discusses the principles of structured programming. Chapters 2 through 6 develop many structured programs.

Questions & Answers

Is there any normative that regulates the use of silver nanoparticles?
Damian Reply
what king of growth are you checking .?
Renato
What fields keep nano created devices from performing or assimulating ? Magnetic fields ? Are do they assimilate ?
Stoney Reply
why we need to study biomolecules, molecular biology in nanotechnology?
Adin Reply
?
Kyle
yes I'm doing my masters in nanotechnology, we are being studying all these domains as well..
Adin
why?
Adin
what school?
Kyle
biomolecules are e building blocks of every organics and inorganic materials.
Joe
anyone know any internet site where one can find nanotechnology papers?
Damian Reply
research.net
kanaga
sciencedirect big data base
Ernesto
Introduction about quantum dots in nanotechnology
Praveena Reply
what does nano mean?
Anassong Reply
nano basically means 10^(-9). nanometer is a unit to measure length.
Bharti
do you think it's worthwhile in the long term to study the effects and possibilities of nanotechnology on viral treatment?
Damian Reply
absolutely yes
Daniel
how to know photocatalytic properties of tio2 nanoparticles...what to do now
Akash Reply
it is a goid question and i want to know the answer as well
Maciej
characteristics of micro business
Abigail
for teaching engĺish at school how nano technology help us
Anassong
Do somebody tell me a best nano engineering book for beginners?
s. Reply
there is no specific books for beginners but there is book called principle of nanotechnology
NANO
what is fullerene does it is used to make bukky balls
Devang Reply
are you nano engineer ?
s.
fullerene is a bucky ball aka Carbon 60 molecule. It was name by the architect Fuller. He design the geodesic dome. it resembles a soccer ball.
Tarell
what is the actual application of fullerenes nowadays?
Damian
That is a great question Damian. best way to answer that question is to Google it. there are hundreds of applications for buck minister fullerenes, from medical to aerospace. you can also find plenty of research papers that will give you great detail on the potential applications of fullerenes.
Tarell
what is the Synthesis, properties,and applications of carbon nano chemistry
Abhijith Reply
Mostly, they use nano carbon for electronics and for materials to be strengthened.
Virgil
is Bucky paper clear?
CYNTHIA
carbon nanotubes has various application in fuel cells membrane, current research on cancer drug,and in electronics MEMS and NEMS etc
NANO
so some one know about replacing silicon atom with phosphorous in semiconductors device?
s. Reply
Yeah, it is a pain to say the least. You basically have to heat the substarte up to around 1000 degrees celcius then pass phosphene gas over top of it, which is explosive and toxic by the way, under very low pressure.
Harper
Do you know which machine is used to that process?
s.
how to fabricate graphene ink ?
SUYASH Reply
for screen printed electrodes ?
SUYASH
What is lattice structure?
s. Reply
of graphene you mean?
Ebrahim
or in general
Ebrahim
in general
s.
Graphene has a hexagonal structure
tahir
On having this app for quite a bit time, Haven't realised there's a chat room in it.
Cied
what is biological synthesis of nanoparticles
Sanket Reply
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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