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System software is the collection of programs that must be available to any computer system for it to operate.

The most important system software is the operating system . Examples of some well-known operating systems include MS-DOS, UNIX, and MS WINDOWS. Many operating systems allow user to run multiple programs. Such operating systems are called multitasking systems .

Beside operating systems, language translators are also system softwares.

High-level programming languages

Because of the difficulty of working with low-level languages, high-level languages were developed to make it easier to write computer programs. High level programming languages create computer programs using instructions that are much easier to understand than machine or assembly language code because you can use words that more clearly describe the task being performed. Examples of high-level languages include FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++ and JAVA.

C and C++ are two separate, but related programming languages. In the 1970s, at Bell Laboratories, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan designed the C programming language. In 1985, at Bell Laboratories, Bjarne Stroutrup created C++ based on the C language. C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities.

What is syntax?

A programming language’s syntax is the set of rules for writing grammatically correct language statements. In practice this means a C statement with correct syntax has a proper form specified for the compiler. As such, the compiler accepts the statement and does not generate an error message.

The c programming language

C was used exclusively on UNIX and on mini-computers. During the 1980s, C compilers were written for other platforms, including PCs.

To provide a level of standardization for C language, in 1989, ANSI created a standard version of C that is called ANSI C.

One main benefit of the C language is that it is much closer to assembly language other than other types of high-level programming languages.

The programs written in C often run much faster and more efficiently than programs written in other types of high-level programming language.

The c++ programming language

C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities. C++ is a popular programming language for writing graphical programs that run on Windows and Macintosh.

The standardized version of C++ is commonly referred to as ANSI C++.

The ANSI C and ANSI C++ standards define how C/C++ code can be written.

The ANSI standards also define run-time libraries , which contains useful functions, variables, constants, and other programming items that you can add to your programs.

The ANSI C++ run-time library is also called the Standard Template Library or Standard C++ Library.

Structured programming and object oriented programming

During the 1960s, many large software development effects encountered severe difficulties. Software schedules were typically late, costs greatly exceeded budgets and finished products were unreliable. People began to realize that software development was a far more complex activity than they had imagined. Research activity in the 1960s resulted in the evolution of structured programming – a discipline approach to writing programs that are clearer than unstructured programs, easier to test and debug and easier to modify. Chapter 5 discusses the principles of structured programming. Chapters 2 through 6 develop many structured programs.

Questions & Answers

is economics important in programming world?
Abdul Reply
What is oppunity cost
Kudzanayi Reply
it refers wants that are left unsatisfied in Oder satisfy another more pressing need
Osei
Thank bro
Kudzanayi
is the second altenative to foregone
swedy
How does monopoly and imperfect competion;public goods externalities ass symmetric information, ommon property ressourses; income distribution Merit goods and Macroeconomic growth and stability causes market failure?
Gcina
it is where by a labour moves from one place to another
Amoako Reply
yh
Osei
another
Amoako
yh
Osei
ok
Amoako
what is mobility of labour
George Reply
who best defined economics
paul Reply
what are the importance of economics
Adwoa Reply
answer
Asamoah
trade should be best
Aakash
help to know how our government operates in which system
swedy
1. To solve economic problems. 2. To predict economic event. 3. It also offer intellectual training to students.
samuel
How price elasticity can affect the markets of certain goods
Rhoda Reply
Heyy thanks for the teaching
Easter Reply
what is labour
Arthur Reply
Mental and physical ability of human being is considered as labour.
JEYARAM
and usually provided by human
KEMAWOR
is all human effort both physical and mental abilities to work
Asamoah
why is it that most countries in Africa abuse available resources
Okeoghene Reply
What is economics
Bright Reply
economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends, scarce means which have alternative uses.
prince
Why is scarcity a mind problem in economics
Alima Reply
because of the problem of allocation of resources
Osola
unequalled distribution of resources
Agyen
thanks
Alima
scarcity is a mind problem due to circumstances like when a particular product is demand in a high rate at the market.
Saihou
scarcity defines limited in supply relative to the demand them. so scarcity is a mind problem in economics because wants are unlimited while resources are also limited.
prince
it is a mind problem because it's one of the fundamental issue address by economics human wants are unlimited and resources available are limited this makes the study of economics essential
rashid
its a fundamental issue
zahid
it's not a mind problem, I think it's a economic problem, how to allocate scarce resources to satisfy need and want of society
Samiullah
Identify the different sectors in the economy
Moses Reply
what is economics
Moses
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Osola
Economics is a science which studies human behaviour as a relationship between ends and scares resources.
JEYARAM
economic is study of human behaviour according to how they satisfie their numerous want
Amar
what is the law of demand
Adugbire Reply
the lower the price the higher the quantity demanded vice versa is true
Nadhin
yes
vivek
yes ooh
Asamoah
right
samuel
what are relationship between unemployment and economic growth
Weness Reply
no relationship
Awuah
When there is economic growth, there is increased opportunity in employment. When there is no economic growth mean there is recession causing a decline or downsizing in employment opportunities.
Teescou
unemployment or employment determined by the level of economic growth
Osola
in a comparison of the stages of meiosis to the stage of mitosis, which stages are unique to meiosis and which stages have the same event in botg meiosis and mitosis
Leah Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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