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System software is the collection of programs that must be available to any computer system for it to operate.

The most important system software is the operating system . Examples of some well-known operating systems include MS-DOS, UNIX, and MS WINDOWS. Many operating systems allow user to run multiple programs. Such operating systems are called multitasking systems .

Beside operating systems, language translators are also system softwares.

High-level programming languages

Because of the difficulty of working with low-level languages, high-level languages were developed to make it easier to write computer programs. High level programming languages create computer programs using instructions that are much easier to understand than machine or assembly language code because you can use words that more clearly describe the task being performed. Examples of high-level languages include FORTRAN, COBOL, BASIC, PASCAL, C, C++ and JAVA.

C and C++ are two separate, but related programming languages. In the 1970s, at Bell Laboratories, Dennis Ritchie and Brian Kernighan designed the C programming language. In 1985, at Bell Laboratories, Bjarne Stroutrup created C++ based on the C language. C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities.

What is syntax?

A programming language’s syntax is the set of rules for writing grammatically correct language statements. In practice this means a C statement with correct syntax has a proper form specified for the compiler. As such, the compiler accepts the statement and does not generate an error message.

The c programming language

C was used exclusively on UNIX and on mini-computers. During the 1980s, C compilers were written for other platforms, including PCs.

To provide a level of standardization for C language, in 1989, ANSI created a standard version of C that is called ANSI C.

One main benefit of the C language is that it is much closer to assembly language other than other types of high-level programming languages.

The programs written in C often run much faster and more efficiently than programs written in other types of high-level programming language.

The c++ programming language

C++ is an extension of C that adds object-oriented programming capabilities. C++ is a popular programming language for writing graphical programs that run on Windows and Macintosh.

The standardized version of C++ is commonly referred to as ANSI C++.

The ANSI C and ANSI C++ standards define how C/C++ code can be written.

The ANSI standards also define run-time libraries , which contains useful functions, variables, constants, and other programming items that you can add to your programs.

The ANSI C++ run-time library is also called the Standard Template Library or Standard C++ Library.

Structured programming and object oriented programming

During the 1960s, many large software development effects encountered severe difficulties. Software schedules were typically late, costs greatly exceeded budgets and finished products were unreliable. People began to realize that software development was a far more complex activity than they had imagined. Research activity in the 1960s resulted in the evolution of structured programming – a discipline approach to writing programs that are clearer than unstructured programs, easier to test and debug and easier to modify. Chapter 5 discusses the principles of structured programming. Chapters 2 through 6 develop many structured programs.

Questions & Answers

how can chip be made from sand
Eke Reply
are nano particles real
Missy Reply
yeah
Joseph
Hello, if I study Physics teacher in bachelor, can I study Nanotechnology in master?
Lale Reply
no can't
Lohitha
where we get a research paper on Nano chemistry....?
Maira Reply
nanopartical of organic/inorganic / physical chemistry , pdf / thesis / review
Ali
what are the products of Nano chemistry?
Maira Reply
There are lots of products of nano chemistry... Like nano coatings.....carbon fiber.. And lots of others..
learn
Even nanotechnology is pretty much all about chemistry... Its the chemistry on quantum or atomic level
learn
Google
da
no nanotechnology is also a part of physics and maths it requires angle formulas and some pressure regarding concepts
Bhagvanji
hey
Giriraj
Preparation and Applications of Nanomaterial for Drug Delivery
Hafiz Reply
revolt
da
Application of nanotechnology in medicine
has a lot of application modern world
Kamaluddeen
yes
narayan
what is variations in raman spectra for nanomaterials
Jyoti Reply
ya I also want to know the raman spectra
Bhagvanji
I only see partial conversation and what's the question here!
Crow Reply
what about nanotechnology for water purification
RAW Reply
please someone correct me if I'm wrong but I think one can use nanoparticles, specially silver nanoparticles for water treatment.
Damian
yes that's correct
Professor
I think
Professor
Nasa has use it in the 60's, copper as water purification in the moon travel.
Alexandre
nanocopper obvius
Alexandre
what is the stm
Brian Reply
is there industrial application of fullrenes. What is the method to prepare fullrene on large scale.?
Rafiq
industrial application...? mmm I think on the medical side as drug carrier, but you should go deeper on your research, I may be wrong
Damian
How we are making nano material?
LITNING Reply
what is a peer
LITNING Reply
What is meant by 'nano scale'?
LITNING Reply
What is STMs full form?
LITNING
scanning tunneling microscope
Sahil
how nano science is used for hydrophobicity
Santosh
Do u think that Graphene and Fullrene fiber can be used to make Air Plane body structure the lightest and strongest. Rafiq
Rafiq
what is differents between GO and RGO?
Mahi
what is simplest way to understand the applications of nano robots used to detect the cancer affected cell of human body.? How this robot is carried to required site of body cell.? what will be the carrier material and how can be detected that correct delivery of drug is done Rafiq
Rafiq
if virus is killing to make ARTIFICIAL DNA OF GRAPHENE FOR KILLED THE VIRUS .THIS IS OUR ASSUMPTION
Anam
analytical skills graphene is prepared to kill any type viruses .
Anam
Any one who tell me about Preparation and application of Nanomaterial for drug Delivery
Hafiz
what is Nano technology ?
Bob Reply
write examples of Nano molecule?
Bob
The nanotechnology is as new science, to scale nanometric
brayan
nanotechnology is the study, desing, synthesis, manipulation and application of materials and functional systems through control of matter at nanoscale
Damian
how did you get the value of 2000N.What calculations are needed to arrive at it
Smarajit Reply
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Source:  OpenStax, Programming fundamentals in c++. OpenStax CNX. Jul 29, 2009 Download for free at http://cnx.org/content/col10788/1.1
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